How do gram positive bacteria protect themselves against harsh environments?
because they have very thick layers of peptidoglycan.
Tobramycin is a gram-positive antibiotic, so if your pink eye (conjunctivitis) is caused by a gram-positive bacteria, then yes it will work. If you happen to have a gram-negative bacteria causing the infection, then no, it will not work. These days we usually prescribe what are known as broad-spectrum antibiotics that will be effective against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. (ie- fluoroquinolones)
There is no "strongest" antibiotic. There are many different types of bacteria, and those bacteria themselves can be gram positive or negative. This requires a variety of different antibiotics to address different families of bacteria. Most of the common antibiotics (zithromax, penicillin, amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin) are common because they have a wide-spectrum of coverage and can be used for multiple types of bacteria. However, no single antibiotic is stronger than another because where it may kill…
You do not " get " them, but gram positive bacteria are gram positive because their cell wall is of sufficient thickness and properly constructed to hold the Gram stain. They have one thick wall of peptidoglycan that holds the stain against being washed away. Gram negative bacteria have two thinner walls which allow the stain to be washed away, basically.
For a given antibiotic is there a difference in susceptibility between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria?
Part of describing the function of an antibiotic is stating whether it is effective against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria or both. (There are other aspects such as whether there is effect on aerobic versus anaerobic bacteria (those that can versus cannot survive in the presence of oxygen), but I'll address that some other time). Some antibiotics have broad spectrum activity, being able to kill Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At first that might seem like a…
Why are Gram-positive bacteria more susceptible to the effects of penicillin than Gram-negative bacteria?
Penicillins have a bacteriocidal effect on Gram-positive bacteria. In Gram-positive cells, peptidoglycan makes up as much as 90% of the thick, compact cell wall, and is the outermost layer. Penicillins are not effective against Gram-negative bacteria, which have cell walls in which peptidoglycan is not the outermost layer, but that lies between the plasma membrane and a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) outer membrane. Penicillin cannot access the peptidoglycan of Gram-negative cells.
Patchouli oil was investigated for antimicrobial activity against a panel of ten human pathogenic bacteria and eight human pathogenic fungi. It showed a significant antimicrobial activity against all tested organisms compared to standard antibiotic Ampicillin. However, patchouli is more active against Gram positive than Gram negative bacteria.
Flucloxacillin is a beta-lactam penicillin, active against beta-lactamase producers like S. aureus. It's chosen against Gram-positive bacteria, to counter those that procuce b-lactmase (which attacks pennicillin), and for infections that resist pennicillin. That said, unless you know that your infection requires these features, I'd not start with this med. Ask your doc. If your infection isn't a Gram-positive bacteria, this won't work at all.
Antibiotics kill bacteria by recognising the antibodies secreted by the bacteria, then attach themselves to the bacteria and give out a signal calling for white blood cells (phagocytes) to eat up the bacteria. Viruses do not secrete the antibodies recognised by antibiotics as they do not resemble proper cells, therefore antibiotics cannot recognise viruses and thus they cannot be digested by phagocytes.
The Broad Spectrum Antibiotics -are any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. The great number of diverse antibiotics currently available can be classified in different ways, e.g., by their chemical structure, their microbial origin, or their mode of action. They are also frequently designated by their effective range. Tetracycline is the most widely used broad-spectrum antibiotics, are effective against both Gram-positive and…
Yes- Bacterial viruses are called bacteriophages. Some examples are T4 and T7 phages. They are complex DNA viruses that attach themselves to the cell surface and then inject their DNA to the inside of the bacteria. Bacteria have enzymes called restriction enzymes that cleave DNA at specific sites called restriction sites. These enzymes are the bacterium's defense against phages.
Antibiotics are used. The original kinds, and still some in use today, were purified from secretions by certain fungi, which protected themselves against bacteria this way. Today there are many kinds of antibiotics, for various applications, and most of them are synthetically produced in laboratories. They are molecular miracles.
Peniciilin is derived from Penicillium chrysogenum and is active against Gram-positive bacteria. It connects peptidoglycan strands by irreversibly interacting with transpeptidase and prohibits the last cell wall synthesis. Streptomycin-sulfate is derived from Streptomyces griseusan and is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. It is active against Gram-negative bacteria and Mycobacteria and inhibits initiation of the protein biosynthesis. Penicillin and Streptomycin are often used together.
What will happen when a gram positive bacterium is placed in a aqueous solution of lysozyme and 10 percent sucrose?
== DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Metronidazole is an antibiotic effective against anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Anaerobic bacteria are single-celled, living organisms that thrive in environments in which there is little oxygen (anaerobic environments) and can cause disease in the abdomen (bacterial peritonitis), liver (liver abscess), and pelvis (abscess of the ovaries and the Fallopian tubes). Giardia lamblia and ameba are intestinal parasites that can cause abdominal pain and diarrhea in infected individuals. Trichomonas is…
Yes and no. There is a trick you can use to visually detect the presense of bacteria but all you will see is points of light, not the actual shape of the bacteria themselves. The trick is: * have the bacteria suspended in some transparent medium (water or air) * have a black back-drop * shine a bright source of light through the medium at right angles to your perspective * you will see bright…
The Nurmi effect relates to the protective effects of normal gut bacterial flora against disease-causing bacteria (a process called competitive exclusion). Nurmi was a scientist who was looking into ways to reduce Salmonella infection of chickens (as this disease can be passed onto humans who eat the meat). Chicks are normally reared in very clean environments and have no contact with adult birds, and so have little if any opportunity to pick up bacteria from…
antibiotics are useful against bacteria because they help to kill off the nasty bacteria or they can also stop the bacteria from reproducing - so the illness doesn't get worse. this then gives your body time to make antibodies which will eventually distroy the bacteria. after this, you won't get the disease again because you are immune to it.