if the engine is removed from vehicle you need to remove the intake, the valve covers, the rocker arms, pushrods, and lifters; then you remove the timing cover, then line up the marks on the sprockets by turning the engine over by hand, then remove the cam and crank sprockets and timing chain; then pull out the cam and install the new one; line up the marks on the sprockets and reinstall them turning the cam if necessary; reverse the rest of the procedure.
Cam timing you line up the dots on your crank and cam gears. Ignition, put #1 at TDC on compression stoke. With cap off distributor, turn rotor so it points towards #1 cylinder. Do not drop dist onto the oil pump slot. Turn the crank counter clockwise 1 full revolution until your distributor falls down on the oil pump. Then it should fire when you re-install the cap. Adjust timing accordingly with a timing light.
Why would you have to install new gears? They are actually cogged sprockets. It depends if you have a single overhead cam or dual overhead cam engine. All assecory belts need to be removed and front right engine mount. Remove crankshaft pulley with applicable puller. Remove timing cover. Loosen timing belt tensioner. Align all cam and crank marks install belt and tighten and re assemble. Not a job you want to do under a shade tree!
It depends if it is an OHV(pushrod motor) or a s.o.h.c./d.o.h.c. motor. Ohv engines can have a timing chain set that allow for adjustment, to be installed. You can also install crank keyways that adjust the timing by moving the crank cam gear the required degree/s. Overhead cam engines can have cam gears installed that allow for cam adjustments.
How do you loosen the timing chain to install cam gear?..... Fact is: You don't, All you have to do is FIRST: aline the timing marks on the cam and crank gears ( they may aline facing each other or both off to one side. Caution: timing marks may be on the chain itself ( different color links, if this is the case then the timing will be of to the side ) Just rotate the crank until one or the other occurs Do Not allow either the cam or the crank to turn while the chain is removed ) Then remove the bolts in the Cam gear, and gently tap and pry on the cam gear till it comes of the end of the cam. Again: Do Not allow either the cam or the crank to turn while the chain is removed! Reverse procedure to reinstall. Be sure the new chain is timed exactly the same as the old one was.
Get a new timing set (crank gear, cam gear, chain) Install crank gear and turn crank so mark on gear is straight up. Loosely install cam gear, turn so mark on gear is straight down. Remove distributor cap, verify rotor is pointing at #1 plug wire. #1 is drivers side front cylinder. If rotor is 180 degrees out (pointing at #6 wire rather than #1) turn crank one full turn clockwise to bring rotor to #1. Marks on both gears should now be directly adjacent to each other, Crank mark up, cam mark down. Gently remove cam gear so as not to rotate cam. Install chain around crank and cam gear, being sure to maintain mark orientation. Bolt cam gear back in place. Check alignment of timing marks, if they are not right remove cam gear and try again. Torque to spec. Your engine is now at TDC #1 on compression stroke. Should fire right up.
It only matters when you install the timing chain and gears. Crank gear must be straight up at 12 o clock. Cam gear straight down at 6o clock when installing chain and gears. # 1 piston must be at top dead center/ all the way up before installing chain and gears. Don't matter were it's at when installing cam.
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