How do land and water affect climate?
Water and land affect climate because when the temperatures of the land increase and decrease faster then the water's temperature, so air over the land is warmer in day and cooler in the night and the air over the water is cooler in the day and warmer in the night so the cooler air flows over to the warmer air causing the warmer air to rise, that is also called either a land or sea breeze (That matters whether it is day or night).
There are three ways that land and water affect climate in South America. The first way is a rain shadow which mean mountains cause dry climate. Another way is El Nino. This means that warm currents bring rain. The last way is that high elevations have cold climate. As you can see, there are three ways that land and water affect climate in South America.
Oceans are large areas of water and water does not heat up or cool down as quickly as land does. The reason for this is that water has a higher specific heat than land; it takes more energy to raise the temperature of water than it does to raise the temperature of land. So areas along the coast tend to have weather that does not vary much.