You can check the links to the right, they might help you in finding some information on pipe bending and offsets.
This depends on the thickness of the pipe in question. When bending tubing and pipe one wants to keep the inner diameter consistent through the bend. That's what tube bending kits are designed to do. Exhaust pipes ( wich are thin ) are bent in the same fashion as tubes, only the machines are larger. You can see this if you visit a local muffler shop. If the pipe is thick walled the pipe must be heated to bend it, and then annealed. This process utilizes heavy hydraulic driven machinery. Mandrel bending is a system wich uses two heavy wheels the pipe is fed through. Sand bending is a shade tree mechanics technique where the pipe is packed with dry sand and then heated and bent by hand.
simple arithmatic such as adding or subtracting fractions from taking measurements. Algebra when doing certain electrical load calculations Right Angle Trigonometry when bending conduit to calculate angle of the bends, degrees of bends, length of hypotenuse which is the two bend points for offsets and saddles. conduit bending CAN be very complex depending on the application such as parallel offsets, multi shot bends, concentric bends, ect.
Yes - Cold bending is allowed by ASME B31.3. The requirements are detailed in Section 332. Generally the most difficult aspect of cold bending to ASME B31.3 standards is the requirement that the pipe not exceed 8% of the outside nominal diameter for internal pressure and 3% for external pressure. Thin wall tube and pipe generally require a mandrel bend.
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