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How do you print a far pointer value in a C programming environment using small memory model?

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2006-02-18 04:11:23
2006-02-18 04:11:23

(*p)[23]

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In the segmented memory model, a near pointer is a memory address that resides in the same segment as the current segment pointer. It had half the memory requirements of a far pointer (which stored the segment and offset, instead of just the offset), but was limited to 1/65536th the maximum distance of the memory that could be referenced. Since the introduction of the flat memory model, all pointers are near pointers, because segments are no longer used in the segmented model addressing. Instead, segments are used for task gates (protected memory), so no normal program would ever access a segment directly. A developer would only need to worry about "near" and "far" pointers on 386s and older processors. It should be noted that other system architectures, such as PowerPC, RISC, and so on, all do not have the concept of segmented memory, and so do not have near or far pointers at all. Instead, all pointers are of the same size and can address any memory location.

It is a matter of the memory model you are using. On old or embedded systems, some memory was outside of the range of a normal pointer. If you have 4 megs of ram you need at least a 22bit pointer to see all of it. But let's say you only have a 16 bit pointer. This means you can only access the first 65K of ram. Odd as it may sound, this was a problem on old computers, and is sometimes an issue on embedded devices with limited processing power. The near and far classifications were a solution. Pointers are near by default. In my example above, the 65K of ram would be accessed with a near pointer. To get past that 16 bit limit, you need a far pointer. Thus: memory within the pointer's range is near. Memory outside of the range is far. Near pointer: char near * ptr; Far pointer: char far * ptr;A far pointer uses both the segment and the offset address to point to a location in memory. A near pointer in contrast uses only the offset address and the default segment. The far pointer can point to any location in memory, whereas the near pointer can only point to a nearby local address.Something that was important 20 years ago. Now you can forget it.

It has to do with the memory model you are using... If you are using the LARGE or HUGE memory model, then you use HUGE memory pointers. == Huge pointers are like far pointers, just more so: they are always normalized (ie offset part is between 0 and 15), and segment wrapping-around do not occur if you use them.

what is the difference between the memory store model and the working memory model?

Both the working model and the multi-store model of memory acknowledge the existence of three main components of memory: sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory.

far pointer can access memory that is larger than 64kb, sometimes, such as when dealing withvideo memory, a needful thing.Hello, it's 2011 now -- use a 32-bit compiler and forget about 16-bit DOS systems like TurboC. (But if you absolutely have to use TurboC, use Large model (or Huge), and forget about near and far).

The stack pointer is a 16-bit register because that is how Intel designed the chip.Memory in the 8085 and 8086/8088 is organized as a 16-bit addressable entity, and they wanted the stack to be locatable in any part of memory, so the stack pointer had to have equal addressible range as any other register.Do not confuse this with the 20-bit segmented architecture of the 8086/8088. Program addressible space and execution model is still 16 bits.

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The basic adwantage of shared memory model is that the programming for IPC becomes simple in the sense that we simply write and read to an address pointer available in the our process address space. We need not use system calls like write and read. The updations to the kernel resident shared memory object is done by the kernel asynchronously. It saves lot of time compared to write and read because in write and read lot of switching should take place between user mode to kernel mode vice versa.

Pointer types are very specific to the compiler used and oftentimes subject to the target architecture. The concept of a near/far differentiation may not have any meaning on the memory model of your target. This has nothing to do with Linux or whatever OS you choose to use. More information should be provided with the documentation of your compiler.

For an application that exceeds 64k, the memory model should be huge.

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There is not a way to post a good model and good programming solution. You will have to make your own post.

sensory menory-->short-term memory--> long term memory

In the States, the prices are $499.99 for 16G memory, $599,99 for 32G memory and $699.99 for 64G model. In Canada, the prices are $499.95 for 16G memory, $599,95 for 32G memory and $699.95 for 64G model.

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It all depends on what make and model memory card you have

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Near, far, and huge pointers are different types of pointers used to reconcile the different addressing models of the Intel 8086/8088 class processors, running in a 16-bit operating system such as Windows 3.x, as well as any of the newer incarnations running in real mode or virtual 8086 mode.A near pointer can address something within one 64Kb memory segment, containing only an offset, and it takes two bytes. The segment is implied by context, and is usually the data segment, selected for the addressing model.A far pointer can address anything in the 1Mb memory1, containing both a segment and an offset, and it takes four bytes.A huge pointer is a normalised far pointer, which means its offset part is always between 00H and 0FH.In 32-bit mode a pointer can address anything in 4Gb memory, containing a flat 32-bit offset, and it takes four bytes. (In this mode segments have no significance.) It only works, however, when there is support for it, such as the WIN32 extension of Windows 3.x.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1In the 80286 or higher, running in protected mode, in OS/2, the segment portion of the pointer is actually a descriptor selector, so 1Mb addressibility depends on the operating system environment.far huge near pointer is an oxymoron. far points to memory outside of the normal address space. near points to memory within the normal address space, is the default, and usually is not needed. I've never seen huge before. What is the target architecture?Near, far, and huge pointers are a construct (usually) in the Win16 environment running on an 8086/8088 or later in real mode, such as Visual C/C++ 1.52. In this environment, near pointers are 16 bits, and far and huge pointers are 32 bits.

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That model was released in 2007 did not have a memory card

Modern Intel chips (since at least 1990) support a flat memory model, if the OS so chooses to use it. Practically all modern OSes use that memory mode, as a flat model is simpler to deal with in software than a segmented model.


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