220 volt AC current is achieved by having two 110 volt lines with opposite waves or phases. One line will be positive while the other is negative then they flip or alternate 60 times a second (60 hertz). When connecting a volt meter to each of these lines it will read 220volts. Connecting a volt meter from either line to ground will read 110.
I don't know if your question is backwards, but in a home you shouldn't have any lines that read 220 volts to ground. In a business or shop there can be 240 volt lines which combined can make 480 for industrial equipment.
If your 220 is an older style and only has two hots and a ground (red,black,bare/green) you can't make a 110. If your 220 has 2 hots (red,black), a neutral (white), and a ground (bare/green), you can get 110 from either of the hots (black,red) to neutral (white).
To produce 220 volts of electricity you would need some form of a generator or alternator with the correct configuration to output 220V. The other ways to produce 220 V: (1) Using a step up transformer if the voltage is lower than 220 V. (2) Using a step down transformer if the voltage is higher than 220 V.
By using a rectifier. A transformer cannot by itself be used to convert AC to DC, and one cannot use a transformer with DC (say a battery). A transformer requires AC so that it can induce current into the secondary windings, which then steps down (or steps up) the output AC voltage. The output AC can then be rectified into DC using diodes (or a bridge rectifier).
As current flow trough a wire by using the right hand rule of thumb a magnetic flux encircles the wire. if an adjacent wire are passive these lines of flux will generate an electron flow on that wire therefore the transfer is complete minus the efficiency of the transfer . Magnetics LINES varies as the square of the distance.
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