The treaty protects Antarctica's sovereignty, though legally it has none, the treaty prevents countries from actually annexing Antarctica, and thus making Antarctica apart of their country, and that Antarctica is to remain neutral.
Though a few countries, mainly in the, such as Australia, Chile, Argentina and New Zealand, along with some further north, such as the United Kingdom and Norway claim portions of Antarctica, though not as sovereign territory, but more of a defined research area, where the country researches Antarctica without the interference of other countries.
An example of a research base located in Antarctica is Scott Base, located in the New Zealand claimed portion, and is headquarters of the operations in the New Zealand claimed portion.
Countries share all research data under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, and freely conduct research anywhere on the continent.
The United States, for example, also supports a research station in the New Zealand claimed portion, which is the largest research station on the continent: McMurdo Station.
Territorial claims have nothing to do with where a treaty-signatory country establishes a research facility. Options exist on any land south of 60 degrees S., which is the part of the earth governed by the Antarctic Treaty.
Tourism in Antarctica is governed by the Antarctic Treaty. The treaty governs all land and ice south of 60 degrees S, and its Marine Protocols protect the Southern Ocean that surrounds the continent. The Antarctic Treaty is an international agreement to govern -- in fact, a condominium form of government. There is no money paid by anyone to the 'Antarctic Treaty'.
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