How has penicillin evolved?
Penicillin has evolved so that it can kill bacteria. The enzyme will destroy peptidoglycan , a substance that holds bacteria together, in order to attack the bacteria and stop the spread of infections.
Bacteria continuously adapt and grow to the medications that we use to fight off the diseases. For example, staphylococcus aureus, better known as "Staph" was treated with penicillin. Through time, it adapted and evolved to become immune to it. Then Penicillin Resistant S. aureus (PRSA) was created. MRSA evolved the same way. This is why medications and antibiotics should be used particularly and religiously.
Penicillin does still work, just not as well. This is because the few germs that can survive the antibiotic will then pass on that capabaility to their progeny; the basics of genetics in action. This means that later generations of the same bacteria need more to kill them or, even worse, are entirely immune to the effect of penicillin. Some strains of bacteria have evolved to the point that they are not only unaffected by…
Penicillin comes from an antibiotic made by one microbe that acts only against certain others. Some microbes are just resistant toward the antibiotic and another will have to be used. At times not enough or a dose that is too weak will prevent the antibiotic from working. Some antibiotics will work only on Gram negative or Gram positive bacteria. Some are broad spectrum and will work on both. It just is that penicillin resistant bacteria…
This isn't entirely true. Penicillin is still as effective against the bacteria that it combated 50 years ago, but new strains of penicillin resistant bacteria have evolved since 50 years ago. This means that penicillin is less effective against a larger percentage of bacteria than it was 50 years ago, solely because of the new, anti-biotic resistant strains. For more information, search Natural Selection.
The advantage of penicillin is that it can kill certain types of bacteria without also killing human cells. It is easy to find toxic substances that kill every kind of cell, but much more difficult to find substances that kill only the cells that we want to kill while leaving our own cells unharmed. Of course, penicillin is not as useful as it used to be, since bacteria have evolved resistant strains.
Yes, amoxicillin is a member of the penicillin group of antibiotics. Yes and No, it is more of the bacteria of penicillin than the actual antibiotic. It is a part of the penicillin family true, and is given to patients that are allergic to penicillin. Not just because the bacteria is penicillin resistant.