In an integrated circuit, electronic components such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, and transistors are formed directly onto the surface of a silicon crystal. The process of manufacturing an integrated circuit will make more sense if one first understands some of the basics of how these components are formed.
Even before the first IC was developed, it was known that common electronic components could be made from silicon. The question was how to make them, and the connecting circuits, from the same piece of silicon? The solution was to alter, the chemical composition of tiny areas on the silicon crystal surface by adding other chemicals, called dopants. Some dopants bond with the silicon to produce regions where the dopant atoms have one electron they can give up. These are called N regions. Other dopants bond with the silicon to produce regions where the dopant atoms have room to take one electron. These are called P regions. When a P region touches an N region, the boundary between them is referred to . This boundary is only 0.000004 inches (0.0001 cm) wide, but is crucial to the operation of integrated circuit components.
because it is situated on the silicon board with resistors ,transistors and wires.These three things organize electrical circuit.Integrated = mixed or combined (same usage as "integrated school" in civil rights).Circuit = electronic circuit.Integrated Circuit = combination of a variety of components into one inseparable circuit.There are 2 types of integrated circuits:Hybrid integrated circuit = ceramic printed circuit board with ultra-miniaturized components soldered to the padsMonolithic integrated circuit = one piece (i.e., single stone) circuit made of silicon (or other semiconductor crystal) with all the different types of components part of that crystal (and layers of metal plated on it to connect components)
A circuit board has several components soldered to it, some of these components may be integrated circuits.The circuit board may be changed or rewired by hand, an integrated circuit cannot normally be changed or rewired (except for some Programable Logic Device integrated circuits, which can be changed electronically).A circuit board is typically made of fiberglass-epoxy or paper-epoxy with copper traces connecting the components, a monolithic integrated circuit is made of a semiconductor (e.g. silicon, gallium arsenide) typically with aluminum traces connecting the components, a hybrid integrated circuit is typically made of ceramic.
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