How does serotonin receptor down-regulation have an antidepressant effect if it results in a decrease in post-synaptic neuron activation?
Receptor internalization is the process by which cell surface expressed receptors are monoubiquitinated following ligand-induced activation, and subsequently taken up into the endocytic vesicles to the lysosome. The receptor will either be degraded or brought back to cell membrane were it is again able to interact with its ligands. Receptor internalization serves as a mechanism to downregulate receptor signaling upon agonistic ligand stimulation.
The binding of a hormone to a receptor is the first step. Target cell activation by hormone-receptor interaction depends equally on 3 factors. First the blood levels of the hormone, second ,relative numbers of receptors for that hormone on or in the target cells and the third ,strength of the binding between the hormone cell and the receptors.
The receptor it self is a trans-membrane protein and doesn't act as an ion channel further more the G-protein involves several functions by its different subunits (G-alph: activation of PLC and adenylcyclase. and G-beta,gamma: activation of potassium channel) and the receptor is coupled with more than one G-protein which lead to amplification of the signal. So G-protein could be possibly evolved to do several functions and amplify them by one receptor
Receptors generate a cellular response upon binding their specific ligand. This response can vary in magnitude. Desensitisation is a phenomenon in which activation of a receptor can reduce the magnitude of the response if it is subsequently activated again. Usually the longer a receptor is activated for the greater the desensitisation will be. There are 3 general mechanisms as to how desensitisation occurs. The first is uncoupling of the receptor from proteins which generate the…
Electrical stimulation of the nerve cell, down the dendrite and to the synapse, once released it has to find a sympathetic receptor cite across the synapse for it to transmit, and so on and so on to elaborate the single cell activation into the multiple activation which then allows function. Brain, thinking, muscle activation-whatever, or wherever the cells are
The surface immunoglotulin that serves as the B-Cell antigen receptor (BCR) has two roles in B-cell activation. First, like the antigen receptor on T cells, it transmits signals directly to the cell's interior when it binds antigen. Second, the B-Cell antigen receptor delivers the antigen to intracellular sites where it is degraded and returned to the B-cell surface as peptides bound to MHC class II molecules.
How does a transmembrane receptor cause the stimulation of a cell does it take something from the chemokine and feed it through its transversile midsection and into the cell giving it to a transport?
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Reactions in the body need a certain amount of energy, called activation energy. Most reactions don't take place because this activation energy is too high. The enzyme bonds to the molecule which diminguishes the activation energy, so the reaction can take place. These enzymes de-bond from the new formed molecule afterwards.