The hierarchical model is a restricted type of network model. Again, data is represented as collections of records and relationships are represented by sets. However, the hierarchical model allows a node to have only one parent. A hierarchical model can be represented as a tree graph, with records appearing as nodes (also called segments) and sets as edges.
Ball and Stick Models; In ball and stick models, the atoms are wooden of plastic balls with holes in them. Sticks or springs are used to represent chemical bonds. Each types of atom is represented by a specific color. and Space Filling Models; In this model, atoms are represented by truncated balls held together by snap fasteners so that the bonds are not visible. The balls are proportional in size to atoms.
The 'raisin pudding' model of the atom is more traditionally called the 'plum pudding model'. The plums represented negatively charged corpuscles (electrons) surrounded by a positively charged pudding. The plum pudding model became outdated in 1909 - 1911 when experiments showed that the positively charged atoms were extremely small.
Matter is made up of atoms, atoms cannot be divided into smaller pieces, all the atoms of an element are exactly alike, and different elements are made of different kinds of atoms. The nucleus, electrons in the electron cloud is the today's model and the past model is matter divided into smaller pieces.
Pentanoic acid has 4 carbon atoms with 7 H's bonded to them and 1 carbon atom with a carboxyl ion bonded to it. In the drawings below, I have left off all the single bonded H's to simplify the drawing. . Go to this web site to see a carboxylic group or do a google search for carboxylic group. http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/vchemlib/mol/glossary/carboxyl.gif . A carboxyl ion is a carbon atom with one oxygen atom double bonded to it, and an O-H single bonded to it as shown below. It has a -1 charge as shown by the - mark to the left of the C. The - ark actually represents one unpaired electron desiring to find another atom with one unpaired electron. …..H …..! ….O ….! ...-C=O . Isotope #1 Draw a row of 4 carbon atoms. Attach a carboxyl ion to the #1 C atom of the 4 you drew. Now the structure has 5 C atoms in a row. . …...H …...! O=C-C-C-C-C . Attaching a carboxyl ion to #4 C is the same as attaching a carboxyl ion to the #1 C atom. (depending on what side of the table you are sitting on, right becomes left) . ………….H ……….…! C-C-C-C=O-H Isotope #2 Attaching a carboxyl ion to the #2 C atom is the same as attaching a carboxyl ion to the #3 C atom. . …....H ....….! ....…O ….....! C-C-C-C . …….H …….! ……O ……! C-C-C-C Isotope #3 Draw a row of 3 carbon atoms, with 1carbon atom bonded below #2 C atom. Attach the carboxyl ion above the #2 C atom. I see 3 carbon atoms in a horizontal line or 3 carbon atoms in a vertical line. There are 4 carbon atoms attached to a central carbon atom. No matter where I attach the double bond O, single bond H, it is attached to one of these 4 carbon atoms. . …H ….! ….C=O-H ….! C-C-C …! ...C . There only 3 isotopes Draw a line of 5 C's …..2..3..4 -C-C-C-C-C- . You might wonder why you can not attach a double bond O, single bond H to Carbon atoms #2, #3,or #4. Looking at the carboxyl ion below, how many bonds does the carbon have around it? I see 3 bonds. (double bond O (2), single bond H (1)) A carbon can only make 4 bonds. If you try to attach a carboxyl ion to Carbon atoms #2, #3, or #4, you still need 2 bonds to attach to the Carbon atoms on the left and right side of that carbon. …..H …..! ….O ….! ...-C=O If you can get a molecular model you can build these isotopes and, determine how many different isotopes you can make.
The Lewis structure shows the four covalent bondsbetween the carbon atoms and the hydrogen atoms. The space-filling model provides themost accurate representation of the electron-charge clouds for the atoms in CH4. Theball-and-stick model emphasizes the molecule's correct molecular shape and shows thecovalent bonds more clearly. Each ball represents an atom, and each stick represents acovalent bond between two atoms. The geometric sketch shows the three-dimensionaltetrahedral structures with a two-dimensional drawing. Picture the hydrogen atomsconnected to the central carbon atom with solid lines as being in the same plane as thecarbon atom. The hydrogen atom connected to the central carbon with a solid wedgecomes out of the plane toward you. The hydrogen atom connected to the carbon atom bya dashed wedge is located back behind the plane of the page.There are several rules to remember when writing Lewis structures:H is always terminal, only one single bond per hydrogenOxygen almost always has two shared pairs and two unshared pairs of electrons. The two shared pairs may be in two separate single bonds or in one double bond.Carbon atoms will always have 4 bonds, either as 4 separate single bonds, or a combination of single, double and/or triple bonds so that there are 4 pairs of electrons around each carbon atom in the molecule. Carbon atoms may single, double, or triple bond to each other, single or double bond to oxygen atoms, or single, double, or triple bond to nitrogen atoms. Halogen atoms form single bonds only, and usually form just one bond. An example of an exception is the chlorate, ClO31-, ion.
How many 3s in 313433535333?
Who would you swap lives with for a day?
Is it true that one human year is equal to seven dog years?
What is the name of the movie filmed in weslaco Texas where cornelio reyna sang?
What is the answer to this India foxtrot Yankee Oscar uniform charlie alpha November uniform November delta echo romeo sierra tango alpha November delta tango hotel India sierra charlie Oscar papa yan?
Din se roshan hai raat se andhari hai khao to haram hai peo to halal hai aurat sari zindgi you use 1 bar use karti hai aur mard din you 3 bar use karta hai quran you uska 5 dafa zikar hai?
A farmer has 19 sheep All but 7 die How many are left?
What is the net worth of the Collingsworth Family gospel singers?
Why do books come out in hardback first?
What happens when a beehive gets too full?
What is the difference between an optometrist and an ophthalmologist?
How can you tell when someone's lying?
Why do some people celebrate Christmas in July?
Why is it bad luck to walk under a ladder?
What is a conservatorship?
What are the ten events in a decathlon?
What is time signature of ncr hymn?
Is Gianluca Ginoble gay?
Paano umusbong ang pagmamahal sa karunungan?
Why the eastern Terai is cooler than than western one OF NEPAL?
Who was giani maan singh jhaur?
What happened to Jeff Hewson of QVC fame?
Is the Montgomery Bus Boycott capitalized?
How do you get admission in junior college in pune?
Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.