It is unknown how many echidnas there are in Australia and on the island of New Guinea, the two places where echidnas are found. The echidna is common throughout Australia because it is very adaptable and can be found in all habitats, from sub-alpine regions to hot, semi-arid and arid desert regions. All it needs to survive is a ready supply of ants and termites to eat.
There are two recognised species of echidnas: the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) of Australia, and the long-beaked echidna (Zaglosssus bruijni) of New Guinea. There are several sub-species of the long-beaked echidna: the Western long-beaked echidna, Sir David's long-beaked echidna and the Eastern long-beaked echidna. The Australian echidnas are not endangered, but the New Guinean echidnas are.