How many people died at Auschwitz?

Articles by Franciszek Piper, the head of research at the Auschwitz Museum, published in 1989-94, give these figures as the minimum estimates for the Auschwitz group of camps:
  1. Entered the Auschwitz group of camps (including Auschwitz-Birkenau) as prisoners: about 1.3 million.
  2. Left the Auschwitz group alive: about 190,000. (This does not mean that all these people survived the holocaust, as many were transferred to other camps, and perished there).
  3. Total estimated number of prisoner deaths from all causes in the Auschwitz group of camps: about 1.1 million, of whom at least 85% were Jews.

He stresses that these figures are cautious estimates.
Most serious debate since then has put the figures in the range c. 1.1-1.5 million.
(In 1946 the Soviet Union officially estimated 4 million dead, but this figure - which was regarded at the time by some Polish investigators as far too high - is not taken seriously any more and was repeatedly queried when first published).

At least 960,000 Jews were killed in Auschwitz. Other victims included approximately 140,000-150,000 Poles, 21,000 Roma (Gypsies), and 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war; and 10,000-15,000 members of other nationalities (Soviet civilians, Czechs, Yugoslavs, French, Germans, and Austrians).

Note the Auschwitz group of camps combined the functions of an extremely harsh concentration camp and those of an extermination camp. The main killing centre was in Auschwitz II (Birkenau). The majority of Jews taken to Auschwitz were killed within 12-48 hours of their arrival.