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WHAT IS DNA MADE FROM>

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Genetics

21 cards

IF DNA is labeled radioactive and allowed to replicate how much radioactivity in newly synthesized DNA

What describes the structure of a DNA molecule

What does the adenine in a DNA do

How are bacteria similar to and different from viruses

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Genetics

24 cards

IF DNA is labeled radioactive and allowed to replicate how much radioactivity in newly synthesized DNA

What describes the structure of a DNA molecule

Where does the rhinovirus come from to begin with

How mutations are corrected

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Genetics

29 cards

IF DNA is labeled radioactive and allowed to replicate how much radioactivity in newly synthesized DNA

What describes the structure of a DNA molecule

Where does the rhinovirus come from to begin with

What does PCR allow you to do with DNA

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Q: IF DNA is labeled radioactive and allowed to replicate how much radioactivity in newly synthesized DNA?
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In a second experiment mice were allowed to breathe oxygen gas O2 laced with radioactive oxygen in this experiment the radioactive oxygen atoms quickly showed up in?

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How did Hershey and chase show that DNA was the molecule that carried the genetic code?

Hershey (you know, Alfred Hershy) and Chase (you know again, Martha Chase) did some experiments with Bacteriophages (you know, viruses that affect Bacteria). What they did in the experiment was that, they grew some of these Bacteriophages on a medium which contained radioactive Sulphus(S)(remember, radioactivity can be detected easily). Then, they also took some other Bacteriophages. But, they were grown on radioactive Phosphorur(P)..... (Don't 4get(that's forget)), DNA also has Phosphorus in it (DNA = Nitrogen bases + Pentose sugar + Phosphorus). Now, back to the experiment ------ The Bacteriophages that were grown on radioactive Phosphorus contained radioactive DNA. But they didn't have any radioactive protein coat. (remember viruses have a protein coat covering their DNA?) Then, bacteriophages (please call them B from now, but not in the exams), which were grown in S (radioactive sulphur, remember?), had a radioactive protein coat (protien coats are made up of sulphur and some other elements), but no radioactive DNA........ That was the first part....................... Now, the next one.......................... Radioactive B's, from both P and S were allowed to attach to E.coli (Esterichia coli) bacteria as an attack (or infection). After infection, The protein coats were removed by agitating (stirring real fast) in a blender (they're still not removed). Then, these virus particles (protein coats) wer removed by centrifugation (using centrifugal machine). Then, the third big step....................................… The observation part....................................… It was observed that, some bacteria were radioactive and many were not. Also, it was observed that, bacteria which were attacked by B (Bacteriophage) having radioactive DNA were the ones which were radioactive..... Also that, bacteria which were attacked by B having S weren't radioactive...... So, it lead to the point that proteins didn't pass into bacteria, but it was the DNA that did...... So, DNA was concluded to be the genetic material...... Viruses were chosen because they only had genetic meterial & coat This is from yahoo anwsers btw


What did the pulse-chase experiments allow Palade to observe?

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Why is DNA important to the origin of life?

DNA's ability to "self"-replicate allowed life to continue from the first cell through each organism's every cellular-division (mitosis/meiosis) up until present day life. It can be though of as a torch like at the Olympics (except for real) where the flame never goes out, just allowed to ignite more and more flames. But it's still the original flame, never had to be lit a second time!


What situations are modeled by exponential functions?

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Who first notice high levels of radioactivity chernobyl?

Bearing in mind that in 1986 the Soviet bloc was still closed to reporting to the outside world, I think the first news on the world's free press came from Sweden, but I am sure it was also noticed in parts of Russia, and also in Poland, they just weren't allowed to report it.


Were can you buy a uranium pellet that they use at nuclear power plants?

There is no open market in these things, they are made by commercial companies for forming fuel rods. New pellets are only slightly radioactive, but I'm sure you would have to be a licensed person or establishment to be allowed to have one, and you would be responsible for its safe keeping. If you are a college or university, contact the licensing authority in your country, but otherwise I think there is very little chance you would be allowed to have one.


Is the wunderwaffe a real gun?

In all seriousness, yes the gun did exist and it did run off of a radioactive material that often killed the user, but it did not fire bolts of electricity. It was simply an stg 44 with a sight powed by the material in the backpack that the user had to use. This sight allowed the user to see in the dark.


Is radioactive waste and nuclear waste the same thing?

No, nuclear waste and radioactive waste are not supposed to be synonymous, even if the media attempts to show them in the same light. See these from the NRC's website. Radioactive waste is a grouping containing low level waste, something which could be harmful to humans more in theory (as in contaminated shoe covers), and high level waste, which (is nuclear waste, reprocessed waste, and other things) will easily kill you. Nuclear waste is a sub-group of Radioactive waste. So a truck spill of radioactive waste on a high-way might just be spent latex doctors gloves.= Low-Level Waste = Low-level waste includes items that have become contaminated with radioactive material or have become radioactive through exposure to neutron radiation. This waste typically consists of contaminated protective shoe covers and clothing, wiping rags, mops, filters, reactor water treatment residues, equipments and tools, luminous dials, medical tubes, swabs, injection needles, syringes, and laboratory animal carcasses and tissues. The radioactivity can range from just above background levels found in nature to very highly radioactive in certain cases such as parts from inside the reactor vessel in a nuclear power plant. Low-level waste is typically stored on-site by licensees, either until it has decayed away and can be disposed of as ordinary trash, or until amounts are large enough for shipment to a low-level waste disposal site in containers approved by the Department of Transportation.= High-Level Waste = High-level radioactive wastes are the highly radioactive materials produced as a byproduct of the reactions that occur inside nuclear reactors. High-level wastes take one of two forms: * Spent (used) reactor fuel when it is accepted for disposal * Waste materials remaining after spent fuel is reprocessed Spent nuclear fuel is used fuel from a reactor that is no longer efficient in creating electricity, because its fission process has slowed. However, it is still thermally hot, highly radioactive, and potentially harmful. Until a permanent disposal repository for spent nuclear fuel is built, licensees must safely store this fuel at their reactors. Reprocessing extracts isotopes from spent fuel that can be used again as reactor fuel. Commercial reprocessing is currently not practiced in the United States, although it has been allowed in the past. However, significant quantities of high-level radioactive waste are produced by the defense reprocessing programs at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, such as Hanford, Washington, and Savannah River, South Carolina, and by commercial reprocessing operations at West Valley, New York. These wastes, which are generally managed by DOE, are not regulated by NRC. However they must be included in any high-level radioactive waste disposal plans, along with all high-level waste from spent reactor fuel. Because of their highly radioactive fission products, high-level waste and spent fuel must be handled and stored with care. Since the only way radioactive waste finally becomes harmless is through decay, which for high-level wastes can take hundreds of thousands of years, the wastes must be stored and finally disposed of in a way that provides adequate protection of the public for a very long time.


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Describe the experimental design that allowed Hershey and Chase to distinguish between the two options for genetic material?

Hershey and Chase knew that the particular phage they worked with has two basic components: DNA on the inside, coated with protein on the outside. In their expt theylabelled phages with radioisotopes . For one batch of infecting phages, they used a radioactive isotope of sulfur to label only the phages' protein coats.In another batch of phages, they used a radioactive isotope of phosphorus to label only DNA. Next, they allowed each batch of phages to infect separate cultures of nonradioactive bacterial cells. They then whirled each culture in a blender to shake loose any parts of the phages that remained outside the bacterial cells. Result of expt. confirmed that only DNA of phage entered bacteria .


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