If a socket shorted while you were pulling wallpaper around socket as well as a socket in a different room and there's no sign of tripped breaker could it be a Jct box that feeds that whole area?
(LIFE SAFETY WARNING! [disclaimer]
Electricity is dangerous!
You can be injured or killed!
Improper installations can cause fire, injury and death!
Should you be doing this yourself?)
The box that "shorted" while you working at it is in the middle of the circuit: the feed comes in and then travels on to another outlet.
A fault that opens a wire there would interrupt downstream devices.
Most likely you put some pressure on a loose receptacle (the receptacle mounting screws were not tight), causing the receptacle to shift inside the box, and pull the hot wire screw terminal against the side of the grounded metal box, causing a short circuit and resulting in an arc at the box. If the hot wire melted, it probably will result in all DOWNSTREAM (at the end of the circuit run) receptacles losing power also.
You probably find your problem at the "suspect" receptacle location, and if not there, check the cable from there back to the circuit breaker panel.
IF YOU ARE NOT ALREADY SURE YOU CAN DO THIS WORK SAFELY AND COMPETENTLY
REFER THIS WORK TO QUALIFIED PROFESSIONALS.
If you do this work yourself, always turn off the power
at the breaker box/fuse panel BEFORE you attempt to do any work AND
always use an electrician's test meter having metal-tipped probes
(not a simple proximity voltage indicator)
to insure the circuit is, in fact, de-energized.