If both wires are black, the one that connects to your white wire is the one that should have little writing on it. Black to the plain black wire, white to the wire with writing.
Black is Hot and White is Neutral and there should also be a bare ground wire. One black/white/bare cable is supply for receptacle and the other is connected in parallel and goes to another outlet. You need your ceiling fixture connected to one of the wires coming into the receptacle box, Black to Black, White to White and Bare to Bare. However, assume you want to be able to switch the ceiling light with a wall switch unless there is to be a pull chain on ceiling light. To connect switch run a new wired from the receptacle to a switch and run a wire from switch to ceiling fixture. At original outlet connect as described above. At switch connect White wires together with a wirenut, then do the same for the bare wires. Connect Black wire going to ceiling to one side or switch and Black wire coming from original receptacle to other side of switch.
To install lighting in one's ceiling you'd need to first cut a hole in one's ceiling to fix the fixture in. The fixture is what you'll put your lighting in so that it fits properly in the ceiling. Before you put the fixture in, you need to make sure the wiring is correct. The wire that connect the electricity from the future light in a ceiling to the rest of the house. After that is done one only needs to put the fixture in. After you fit the fixture into the ceiling one would only need to put the lighting, whether it is a light bulb or anything else.
At that point, you should verify the home wiring; make certain that the black wire IS, in fact, the "hot" wire and that the white wire IS in fact the neutral. If the house is wired properly, connect the new fixture with "black to black and white to white." If you aren't certain that the house wiring was done properly, contact a local electrician to perform the work for you. Connecting a light fixture improperly can be dangerous to you and to anyone who subsequently changes a bulb or otherwise comes in contact with the fixture.
By earth wire I am assuming you mean the bare wire and that a black and white wire are connected to the light. If when you connect the earth wire and breaker trips then there is a short between black and earth. It could be a bad ground connection, an internal short in the light fixture where black wire "hot" is connected to metal on the fixture through a nick in wire.
Installing a Ceiling LightInstalling A Ceiling LightReplacing ceiling lights is sometimes a required task when you decide remodel a room or the light fixture has worn out with age. Installing a new ceiling light is a simple task that can be done by most homeowners without any outside help.The first thing to do before installing any light in your ceiling is to turn off the power at the circuit breaker. Since you will be working with electrical wiring, you do not want to take the chance of being shocked or electrocuted. After the power is turned off, unscrew the light bulb from the existing fixture and use a screwdriver take out the screws holding the fixture in place and connecting the wires to the fixture.When the fixture is off, attach a mounting plate to the ceiling light outlet box. Then attach the wires to the new ceiling light fixture. Connect the copper wires together and like colored wires together with wire nuts so that the fixture is properly grounded.Attach the base of the new fixture over the outlet box and tighten it up with screws. Once this is finished, screw the light bulb back into place and put a glass bowl over the bulb to cover it. Use bolts on sides of the fixture to secure the glass bowl in place.Once the fixture is securely in place, return to the circuit breaker. Turn back on the power and test out the light to ensure everything is installed correctly.
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