If someone dies with 10K in credit card debt and no assets but has life insurance does the credit company get the insurance or does it go to the beneficiary?

Death benefits are generally not subject to attachment for creditor debt. States establish laws concerning property that is exempted from creditor seizure. Without knowing the state of residency it is not possible to be more specific. You can find out what property is exempt under the laws of the state where the person lives by searching "asset exemptions". (Example: Florida asset exemptions). In many states the proceeds of life insurance are not part of the estate because they are proceeds of a contract to pay a third-party beneficiary, which promise of payment vests upon the death of the insured, so the insured (and the estate) do not receive any benefit. Since the estate has no beneficial interest in the proceeds of the insurance, the creditors would have no claim for this money (unless, perhaps, a surviving community property spouse is the beneficiary).