If you file chapter 7 bankruptcy and are discharged can a creditor later put a judgment against you for a mortgage on property you surrendered to them when you filed the bankruptcy?

No. The creditor can foreclose on the property (and virtually always do) since that is the way they get your name off of the deed and someone else's name on it. And, during this foreclosure, they will list you as a defendant since you are the property owner until the sheriff sale takes place. But, when the judgment is rendered in the foreclosure, it should be an "in rem" judgment, which means against the property only, and not an "in personam" judgment, which means against you personally. If they do get an in personam judgment against you, it is usually a good idea to notify the court and let them know about the bankruptcy so they remove the in personam judgment.