In what year was the pitchers 'mound' introduced?
The pitcher's mound was introduced in 1893. Prior to 1893, there was a 4 foot wide by 5 1/2 foot long box on flat ground that the pitchers pitched from. The pitcher could put his back foot anywhere along the 4 footback line of the box, which was 55 1/2 feet from home plate, to start his delivery. In 1893, to create more offense, the box was replaced with a raised mound and a rubber slab from where the pitcher could start his delivery. The rubber slab was 12 inches in length and positioned 60 1/2 feet from home plate. With the pitched ball having to travel an extra five feet and the pitcher not being able to use a wide angle to deliver the pitch, the league batting average rose 35 points in 1893 and another 29 points in 1894.
It's to give the pitchers an advantage. Of course, these days, there isn't much of an advantage. Back in the 60s, it was raised (the mound was made higher) since the pitchers complained about the batter's advantage. Shortly thereafter, it was lowered to its present height due to the dominance of pitchers like Bob Gibson.
Pitchers can do their initial warm-ups anywhere, usually some light throwing to warm up their arms in the outfield area. Then they can move into the bullpen where there is a mound and a catcher where the height of the mound and distance to the catcher are identical to the mound and catcher on the playing field. Starting pitchers may use the bullpen for their warm-ups during pre-game ceremonies on the field, then move onto…