Is a virus living or non-living?

A virus is non living as according to the modified Cell Theory, cells are defined as the basic building blocks of life, while viruses are not made up of cells. In fact, a virus is nothing more than a protein capsid encapsulating genetic material (either DNA or RNA), hence a virus would more correctly be termed as an infectious particle.


Viruses are non-living.
Virus are living object because:
They possess genetic material DNAs or RNAs. They can reproduce and mutate. They react to stimuli such as radiation, chemicals and heat. They possess antigenic properties. They are capable to multiply with same genetic constituent.

Virus are non-living because:
They can be crystalize like non living material. They are inert like chemical outside the host. Cell wall and cell membranes are absent. Protoplasm is also absent. They do not have any functional anatomy. They can not multiply without host nuclear machinsery.


However, in order to be qualified to be a living organism, it must be able to show all of the characteristics of life, therefore viruses are not living.
Viruses are not considered non living because alone they cannot replicate, they need a host (another living cell) to replicate. They do not have cells. Biologically speaking they are non-living things.