Name the closest visible star outside the solar system How far away is it?
The binary system of Alpha Centauri has the closest stars to the Sun that are visible, at about 4.4 light years away, and appear as a single star - and probably gravitationally bound to that system, another star Proxima Centauri is still closer to us at about 4.2 light years, and is thus the closest star to our Sun but is not visible to the naked eye.
Normally the term "Solar System" refers only to our system of Sun, planets and other stellar "stuff". Outside of "our Solar System" we use the term "Extrasolar Systems" Our nearest extrasolar system is Alpha Centauri and it is the closest star system to the Solar System, being only 4.37 light years away from our Sun. See link for more information
None. By definition , our "solar system" is everything controlled by the gravity of our sun. The planets, their satellites, asteroids, dwarf planets, comets, interplanetary dust, and man-made satellites are "within" our solar system. Any "planet" outside out solar system is just that - OUTSIDE of it.
The solar system, which is largely empty space, would appear overwhelmingly black to an observer outside Earth. There is dust in the solar system, mostly in the plane of the ecliptic, which scatters small amounts of sunlight, and is sometimes visible from Earth at night (zodiacal light, or Gegenschein). During the day the sky appears blue owing to Rayleigh scattering but this effect is limited to our sky and would not be visible outside the…