Of what advantage is the formation of many more sperm than egg cells?
Two laws of nature. First, Law of Large Numbers. The more sperm there are, the better the chances of at least one getting to the objective. Second, Survival of the fittest. The healthiest (fittest) sperm will survive longer in actually what is a hostile work environment giving the strongest the best opportunity to make it to the objective.
All human gametes (sex cells), which means egg cells and sperm cells, have 23 chromosomes. When the sperm fertilises the egg, the 23 chromosomes from the egg cell and the 23 chromosomes from the sperm cell join to make cells with 46 chromosomes. In summary, all cells in the human body have 46 chromosomes, except sperm cells and egg cells, which have 23.
There are three main elements which determine the health of sperm cells: sperm quantity, sperm quality and sperm motility. Sperm Quantity - the number sperm cells present in one milliliter of semen. In healthy semen, an analysis would show tens of millions of sperm cells in just one milliliter. In one ejaculation, a man releases millions of sperm cells into his partner's body, but only 200 of these reach the fallopian tubes, where the egg…
Normal body cells contain 46 chromosomes, arranged in 23 pairs. When sperm cells (or egg cells) are made each new cell gets one chromosome from each pairt, so the number of chromosomes is halved. This means that sperm cells (and egg cells) have 23 chromosomes. The reason for this is that when the egg and sperm join together at fertilization, the normal number of 46 will be restored.
Cells such as liver cells, sperm cells and muscle cells have more mitochondria. This is because they are more metabolically active and need a plentiful supply of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for metabolic processes. For example, many chemical processes occur in liver cells and sperm cells are known for movement.
Body cells, like liver cells, are diploid. This means they have pairs of chromosomes. In this example the diploid number of chromosomes is 24. In sperm cells (or egg cells) the number of chromosomes is halved. This is described as the haploid number. In this example the haploid number would be 24/2 = 12. So the number of chromosomes in the sperm cells would be 12.