The Bolshevik Revolution led to socialism, not communism, in Russia.
Russia's communists had recently spilt into two different parties. The real event that led to the rise of "communism" in Russia was the October Revolution led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Party. The word communism is in quotes because true communism was never achieved in Russia. Lenin and his followers imposed socialism, not communism. The split of the Marxist party into two factions, Bolshevik and Menshevik, did not lead to the rise of communism, because that split took place in 1903. Further, that split was a split within a Marxist political party, so both factions had socialism/communism as their aims.
Tsar Nicholas II was the final Tsar of Russia. He lead the once grand Romanov family into the ground with his horrid leadership skills. he was hated by the Russian people, and was overthrown by the Provisional Government that lead to the Bolshevik Revolution, aka the Russian Revolution. The government of Russia at this point switched from Monarchy to Communism under the Bolsheviks.
In Russian, the term 'Bolshevik' means 'majority men', who were in favour of a Communist Revolution lead by the Proletariat. There were also the Mensheviks, or 'minority men', who wanted a Socialist Revolution led by the Middle Classes- in effect, replacing one set of bosses with another set of bosses, who would have governed the country on the basis of inequality of education and academic elitism as oppose to inequality of wealth. Those in favour of a Proletarian revolution were in the majority, hence the term 'Bolshevik'.
You probably mean Vladimir I. Lenin; however, although he did establish communism in Russia, he had nothing to do with the overthrow of the Czar. The Czar was overthrown in the February Russian Revolution of 1917, while Lenin was in exile in Switzerland. That revolution was over practically before Lenin even heard about it. He did lead the October Revolution, which overthrew the new Provisional Government and establish communism in Russia.
Prior to the Bolshevik revolution Lenin put forth the idea that the Russian peasants would play a key role in any revolution. Trotsky, on the other hand believed that the peasants were incapable of any forceful political activity. In Trotsky's vision of the future revolution, the workers would lead and seize political power. As events turned out, neither was correct.
Lenin's NEP never did lead to communism. In fact, the NEP was a controversial return to capitalism in the areas of agriculture and small businesses. In that respect, it was a retreat from socialism and the anticipated march toward communism. Lenin introduced it as a temporary measure to bolster a failing economy, which threatened to lead to another revolution which would have swept him and the Bolsheviks out of power for exactly the same reasons the Tsar and then the Provisional Government were swept out of power.
Nikita Khrushchev became the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union after Stalin died. The General Secretary's position was the real seat of power in the Soviet Union at the time. In that sense only can it be logically said that Khrushchev "lead communism" after Stalin died. It would be incorrect to say that he "lead communism," because "communism" existed in several other countries and neither Stalin nor Khrushchev lead those countries. One could say that Nikita Khrushchev lead communism in the Soviet Union in particular, but not that he lead communism in general.
This revolution succeed when earlier ones had failed because it had more support and stronger people behind the cause. This revolution had a previous Russian leader behind the cause plus more citizens backed the idea.World War I had weakened the Russian military and people's dissatisfaction with life under the czars lead to the successful revolution.
Russia had two distinct Revolutions. The first was the March Revolution of 1917. It deposed the monarchy and instated a democratic Provisional Government to rule until a permanent government could be organized. However, they didn't fix the problems that lead to the revolution, so months later was the November or Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 as well. The communist Bolsheviks took control of the capital and then the government.
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