The general term for federal money or resources granted or local government is?
a block grant
A country that is large is most likely to have a Federal System of Government. Any country can have a federal system if the population and/or groups representing the population agree to waive certain rights of a local government to a centralized form of government. The powers of the "federal" government can be weak or strong depending on powers granted to it or not granted to it.
What are the powers called that are specifically granted to the national government by the constitution?
The constitution gives the federal government certain powers. The federal government can ONLY exercise a power which is explicitly granted to it in the constitution. The Constitution also lists a few specific things that states are not allowed to do, presumably because the founders didn't want ANY level of government (state or federal) to be able to do it, or because they wanted it to be reserved exclusively to the federal government. The 10th Amendment…