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Genetic Engineering

The process which gametes from two parents combine to from one new cell?

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July 21, 2009 4:31PM

The production of gametes is termed gametogenesis. In diploid organisms, it is a process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes. Depending on the biological life cycle of the organism, gametogenesis occurs by meiotic division of diploid gametocytes into various gametes or by mitotic division of haploid gametogenous cells. For example, in vertebrates, meiosis in diploid organisms reduces the number of sets of chromosomes from two to one (i.e., produces haploid gametes from diploid gametocytes). On the other hand, plants may produce gametes through mitosis in gametophytes. The gametophytes grow from haploid spores after sporic meiosis. The existence of a multicellular, haploid phase in the life cycle between meiosis and gametogenesis is also referred to as alternation of generations. Organs that produce gametes are called gonads in animals, and archegonia or antheridia in plants.