Were both of Jesus' parents descendants of King David?

Yes. The Gospel accounts of Matthew and Luke confirm that Jesus came through that family line of King David. (Matthew 1:1-16; Luke 3:23-38) Though Jesus had many bitter enemies, none of them challenged his well-publicized line of descent. (Matthew 21:9, 15) Clearly, then, his lineage is beyond question.

Joseph It is even surprising to know the ancestors of Joseph. First of all, few even of the Jewish priests of the first century CE knew their ancestors back as far as 5 generations, and it is unlikely that any lay people could say who were their ancestors in the male line past their grandfathers or perhaps great-grandfathers.


There is some confusion because the Gospel According to St Matthew provides a genealogy back through Joseph and then through the great Zorobabel, son of Salathiel, to King David, but the Gospel According to St Luke also provides a genealogy back through Joseph and then through the great Zorobabel, son of Salathiel, to King David. Raymond E. Brown (An Introduction to the New Testament) says while Luke's list may be less classically monarchical than Matthew's, there is little likelihood that either is strictly historical.

Mary

We do not know anything about the genealogy of Mary, so it would be impossible to answer this question in respect to Mary. Early Christians believed that Mary's father and mother were called Joachim and Anne, but they had no tradition linking Joachim and Anne back to King David. In modern times, some have suggested that the genealogy in Luke's Gospel is really that of Mary. However, Luke is quite clear - this genealogy is through Joseph, going back through Zorobabel to David.

Even if Luke meant 'Mary' when he said 'Joseph' in the genealogy he passed on to us, this would still not explain why Matthew gave Zorobabel's paternal grandfather as Jechonias, while Luke gave the same grandfather as Neri. A man can not have two paternal grandfathers.

It is necessary to understand that Matthew and Luke wrote their Gospels in separate communities and each was entirely unaware of the work being performed by the other. So, they were unable to compare and harmonise their work, to assist future generations better understand the life of Jesus. We should, of course, not take the genealogies too literally - the two evangelists were simply doing the best they could with the information available.