Yes. There types included Cannon, Howitzers and Mortars. Some cannon had smooth bores inside the barrel and later ones were rifled with sprial grooves to induce a spin to the shell and make it go straighter and thus more predictable. The smooth bores were easier to load.
Some cannon used shells that were 6-sided shape to fit exactly in the barrel that was cut in 6 sides to the bore.
Mortars were used to throw explosive charges up and over a wall or trench works.
Some cannon could fire a solid ball. Others fired a shell that had a fuse that caused it to explode in the air. Some cannon were loaded with grapeshot, which made it fire out multiple smaller balls like a shotgun.
Then there is a whole category of experimental cannons---ones that never made it into production.
ALSO NOTE: some cannons used in the civil war were much larger then the cannons your probably thinking of.