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Compare the density with coppers known density (8.94g/mL) by weighing the mystery metal's mass and dividing by it's volume, which can be determined by measuring how much water the metal displaces when submerged. (Additionally, by heating a portion of it briefly in the presence of oxygen a dark blackish-brown color of copper oxide should become visible. Heating it with a direct flame from a small torch should produce a green flame quite easily as well.) All of these tests will allow one to determine if an item is "REAL" copper. They will not assure one that the copper is "PURE" copper (even the density test can be fooled by a witty seasoned metallurgist)
It's a mystery.
I like big butts and I cannot lie
The most obvious answer, tasting it, is unfortunately off the table. There are many substances that look similar to sugar that would be very harmful if ingested.So how else can you identify a substance? Finding its density would be a good start. Measure a certain amount in a measuring cup, then find the mass of the mystery substance (Be sure to subtract out the mass of the measuring cup!).Divide the mass by the volume to get the density. For sugar, the density should be about 1.29 g/cm3Another way is to find the melting point of the mystery substance and compare it to the melting point of sugar. Slowly heat the substance until it begins to melt. (Putting it in a plastic bag and submerging it in hot water is probably the best way to do this.) Once it starts melting, use a thermometer to find it's temperature. If it is sugar, it should be around 170oC.
A mystery answer
The mystery substance turned out to be salt.
When two substances do not mix with each other, the less dense substance will float on the more dense substance. Vegetable oil floats on water. If the mystery substance with d = 0.95 g/mL does not mix with water, then it should float on top of water. If the mystery substance with d = 0.95 g/mL does not mix with vegetable oil, then it should sink in vegetable oil.
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A number with multiples 10 and 5 would not have a factor of 12. A single mystery number would not have a sum of 6. Under these conditions, the mystery number will remain a mystery.
you pour the substance in and see which gradation it comes to. There is no mystery, a perfectly simple tool.
Check the smell and colour and try and figure it out