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Multiprogramming is the rapid switching of the CPU between multiple processes in memory. It is done only when the currently running process requests I/O, or terminates. It was commonly used to keep the CPU busy while one or more processes are doing I/O. It is now mostly

superceded by multitasking, in which processes also lose the CPU when their time quantum expires.

Multiprogramming makes efficient use of the CPU by overlapping the demands for the CPU and its I/O devices from various users. It attempts to increase CPU utilization by always having something for the CPU to execute.

The prime reason for multiprogramming is to give the CPU something to do while waiting for I/O to complete. If there is no DMA, the CPU is fully occupied doing I/O, so there is nothing to be gained (at least in terms of CPU utilization) by multiprogramming.

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Q: What are advantages of multiprogramming over non multiprogramming?
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