What are prospects of astronomical observation from the moon?
The main prospects of an observatory on the moon is that there would be less artificial light from human activity to cloud the visible light from stellar objects, and also, having no atmosphere means there would be less interference of the image that a telescope/observatory would be trying to see.
An astronomical observatory is a place where astronomical events are observed (where you look at stars, planets, the Moon, the Sun). Usually in modern times this is a remote place where stray light from cities does not reach, at a high elevation so the interference from the atmosphere is minimal and equipped with instruments (telescopes and such) to assist observation.
What do you mean by astronomical observation from moon surface vis a vis low earth orbiting observatory?
Islamic dates are based on actual astronomical observation. The month starts when the new moon is sighted. In countries like Saudi Arabia, clouds are very rare, so the moon can usually be viewed as soon as it appears. Of course, each lunar month is the same length, so Muslims use the observed length to project the start of the new month.
Yes is does, just like the moon does, but only a small amount, so its not as clear as the moon. The above answer is not correct because actually the Earth reflects much more light than the moon. Albedo is the astronomical measure that indicates how good of a reflector an astronomical object is: the moon albedo is 0.12, the Earth albedo is 0.36. This makes the Earth a pretty good mirror in comparison with…
In astronomical terms the moon is very close to Earth, much closer than anything else. Other astronomical bodies have similar cratering but are too far away for us to see them. Second, the moon is geologically dead. There are no processes on the moon's surface to destroy or bury the craters on the moon as has happened to Earth's craters.
The accuracy, reach, and power of observation by means of telescopes of various types, and with the help of photography, is vastly superior to the accomplishments of the unaided human eye. Astronomical knowledge is easily 10,000 times greater as a result of astronomical tools, than it would otherwise have been.