What are some well-known Jewish beliefs?
According to Maimonides (one of the leading Rabbi's and Doctors of the 12 century) every Jew must believe in the following 13 principles. I have translated it from Hebrew to English
1. That the Creator Blessed is his name, created every creature and it was done alone
2.That the Creator Blessed is his name, is a single being and there is no other like him, he is was and will be the only God .
3. That the Creator Blessed is his name, has no body or bodily needs.
4. That the Creator Blessed is his name, was the first and will be the last.
5. That the Creator Blessed is his name, is the only thing we should pray to and should pray to nothing else.
6. That the words of the Prophets are true words
7. That the prophesies of Moses were true and he was the *"father" of all prophets both before and after him. *(in Hebrew the word father can also mean the best)
8. That the entire Torah that we have was given directly to Moses
9. That the Holy Torah can not be changed and there will never be another one.
10. That the Creator Blessed is his name, knows all actions and thought s of people.
11. That the Creator Blessed is his name,Rewards people who fulfill his commandments, and punishes those who violate them
12. Beliefe that the Messiah will come, and even though it has been delayed so long we patiently wait everyday for it. (The Hebrew of #12 has been made into the most stirring song that still brings a tear everytime I hear it)
13. That when the Creator Blessed is his name,desires he will resurect the dead