What are the adaptations that enable vertebrates to survive on land?
The ability for the aquatic animals' lungs to breathe the air on land. And the feet and mobility changes.
Well, they are adapted to dry land when they are sproutlings; so they learn to produce natural sugars using carbon dioxide, and the natural nutrients from sunlight to use in substitute for the lack of water in the area. They can survive off of photosynthesis in places like the desert or Arizona, etc.
There were many challenges that vertebrates had to overcome in order for them to colonize land habitats. Three of the most challenging tasks that vertebrates had was to learn how to eat the food on the land to sustain their energy and nutritional needs, how to breath, and how to defend themselves against predators.
Amphibians are vertebrates with strong leg bones that have developed to allow them to live on land. Also, during. Metamorphosis the amphibians gills are replaced with lungs. They have a three-chambered heart that ensures that cells get the proper amount of oxygen, and they have 4 legs so they can move.
Hard shelled or leathery eggs that can incubate/hatch outside of water, allowing them to migrate dry areas. Skin that prevents transpiration, allowing them to live on land without dehydrating. These would be primary...the third could be any of a number of adaptations, changes in locomotion, eye sight et cetera
Well most vertebrates have cephalization... this means that they developed a head structure allowing for a more advanced brain which of course means they have higher thinking capacity as well as having more advanced senses. Any organism that has cephalization is considered more advanced than its competition. However speaking about being successful land animals they probably aren't the most successful. The largest amount of land organisms is the insects and more specific the beetle.