What are the branches of biology according to method of study?
The scope of biology is enormous - it's the history of all
living organisms and their role on earth. There are many branches
of biology, each focused on different aspects of
Biology is first split into 3 main branches that focus on 3
different organisms: Zoology (animals),botany (plants), and
microbiology (organisms). More information on each branch as well
as numerous sub-branches are listed below in alphabetical
Branches of Biology
- Agriculture - the science and practice of producing crops and
livestock from the natural resources of the earth.
- Anatomy - the study of the animal form, particularly the human
- Astrobiology - the branch of biology concerned with the effects
of outer space on living organisms and the search for
- Biochemistry - the chemical processes in all living organisms
and the study of the structure and function of cellular components,
such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other
biomolecules, and of their functions and transformations during
- Bioclimatology - a science concerned with the influence of
climates on organisms, for instance the effects of climate on the
development and distribution of plants, animals, and
- Bioengineering - the study of biology through the means of
engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially
related to biotechnology.
- Biogeography - a science that attempts to describe the changing
distributions and geographic patterns of living and fossil species
of plants and animals.
- Bioinformatics - information technology as applied to the life
sciences, especially the technology used for the collection,
storage, and retrieval of genomic data.
- Biomechanics - often considered a branch of medicine, the study
of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use
through artificial limbs, etc.
- Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology - an interdisciplinary
field of academic study which aims at modelling natural, biological
processes using mathematical techniques and tools.
- Biophysics or biological physics - an interdisciplinary science
that applies the theories and methods of physical sciences to
questions of biology.
- Biotechnology - applied science that is concerned with
biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to
make or modify products or processes for specific use.
- Botany - the scientific study of plants.
- Cell biology - the study of cells at the microscopic or at the
molecular level. It includes studying the cells' physiological
properties, structures, organelles, interactions with their
environment, life cycle, division and apoptosis.
- Conservation Biology - the study of the preservation,
protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural
ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife. This is concerned with the
studies and schemes of habitat preservation and species protection
for the purpose of alleviating extinction crisis and conserving
- Chronobiology - a science that studies time-related phenomena
in living organisms.
- Cryobiology - the study of the effects of low temperatures on
- Developmental Biology - the study of the processes by which an
organism develops from a zygote to its full structure.
- Ecology - the scientific study of the relationships between
plants, animals, and their environment.
- Ethnobiology - a study of the past and present human
interactions with the environment, for instance the use of diverse
flora and fauna by indigenous societies.
- Ethology - the study of animal behavior.
- Entomology - the scientific study of insects.
- Evolutionary Biology - a subfield concerned with the origin and
descent of species, as well as their change over time, i.e. their
- Freshwater Biology - a science concerned with the life and
ecosystems of freshwater habitats.
- Genetics - a science that deals with heredity, especially the
mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of
inherited characteristics among similar or related
- Geobiology - a science that combines geology and biology to
study the interactions of organisms with their
- Herpetology - the study of reptiles and amphibians.
- Histology - The study of cells and tissue, a microscopic branch
- Ichthyology - the study of fish.
- Immunobiology - a study of the structure and function of the
immune system, innate and acquired immunity, the bodily distinction
of self from nonself, and laboratory techniques involving the
interaction of antigens with specific antibodies.
- Macrobiology - the study of biology on the level of the
macroscopic individual (plant, animal, or other living being) as a
- Mammology - the study of mammals.
- Marine Biology - study of ocean plants and animals and their
- Medicine - the science which relates to the prevention, cure,
or alleviation of disease.
- Microbiology - the study of microscopic organisms
(microorganisms) and their interactions with other living
- Molecular Biology - the study of biology and biological
functions at the molecular level, some cross over with
- Mycology - the study of fungi
- Neurobiology - the branch of biology that deals with the
anatomy and physiology and pathology of the nervous
- Oceanography - the study of the ocean, including ocean life,
environment, geography, weather, and other aspects influencing the
ocean. See Marine Biology.
- Ornithology - the study of birds.
- Paleobiology - the study of the forms of life existing in
prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of
plants, animals, and other organisms.
- Parasitology - the study of parasites and parasitism.
- Pathology - the study of the nature of disease and its causes,
processes, development, and consequences.
- Pharmacology - the study of preparation and use of drugs and
- Physiology - the biological study of the functions of living
organisms and their parts.
- Primatology - the science that deals with primates
- Protistology - the study of protists
- Psychobiology - the study of mental functioning and behavior in
relation to other biological processes
- Toxicology - the study of how natural or man-made poisons cause
undesirable effects in living organisms
- Virology - study of viruses
- Zoology - the study of animals and animal life, including
classification, physiology, development, and behavior.
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