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What are the branches of biology according to method of study?


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Answered 2014-11-25 16:42:36

The scope of Biology is enormous - it's the history of all living organisms and their role on earth. There are many branches of biology, each focused on different aspects of research.

Biology is first split into 3 main branches that focus on 3 different organisms: zoology (animals),botany (plants), and microbiology (organisms). More information on each branch as well as numerous sub-branches are listed below in alphabetical order.

Branches of Biology

  • Agriculture - the science and practice of producing crops and livestock from the Natural Resources of the earth.

  • Anatomy - the study of the animal form, particularly the human body.

  • Astrobiology - the branch of biology concerned with the effects of outer space on living organisms and the search for extraterrestrial life.

  • Biochemistry - the chemical processes in all living organisms and the study of the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules, and of their functions and transformations during life processes.

  • Bioclimatology - a science concerned with the influence of climates on organisms, for instance the effects of climate on the development and distribution of plants, animals, and humans.

  • Bioengineering - the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology.

  • Biogeography - a science that attempts to describe the changing distributions and geographic patterns of living and fossil species of plants and animals.

  • Bioinformatics - information technology as applied to the life sciences, especially the technology used for the collection, storage, and retrieval of genomic data.

  • Biomechanics - often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through artificial limbs, etc.

  • Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology - an interdisciplinary field of academic study which aims at modelling natural, biological processes using mathematical techniques and tools.

  • Biophysics or biological physics - an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physical sciences to questions of biology.

  • Biotechnology - applied science that is concerned with biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.

  • Botany - the scientific study of plants.

  • Cell biology - the study of cells at the microscopic or at the molecular level. It includes studying the cells' physiological properties, structures, organelles, interactions with their environment, life cycle, division and apoptosis.

  • Conservation Biology - the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife. This is concerned with the studies and schemes of habitat preservation and species protection for the purpose of alleviating extinction crisis and conserving biodiversity.

  • Chronobiology - a science that studies time-related phenomena in living organisms.

  • Cryobiology - the study of the effects of low temperatures on living organisms.

  • Developmental Biology - the study of the processes by which an organism develops from a zygote to its full structure.

  • Ecology - the scientific study of the relationships between plants, animals, and their environment.

  • Ethnobiology - a study of the past and present human interactions with the environment, for instance the use of diverse flora and fauna by indigenous societies.

  • Ethology - the study of animal behavior.

  • Entomology - the scientific study of insects.

  • Evolutionary Biology - a subfield concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i.e. their evolution.

  • Freshwater Biology - a science concerned with the life and ecosystems of freshwater habitats.

  • Genetics - a science that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms.

  • Geobiology - a science that combines geology and biology to study the interactions of organisms with their environment.

  • Herpetology - the study of reptiles and amphibians.

  • Histology - The study of cells and tissue, a microscopic branch of anatomy.

  • Ichthyology - the study of fish.

  • Immunobiology - a study of the structure and function of the immune system, innate and acquired immunity, the bodily distinction of self from nonself, and laboratory techniques involving the interaction of antigens with specific antibodies.

  • Macrobiology - the study of biology on the level of the macroscopic individual (plant, animal, or other living being) as a complete unit.

  • Mammology - the study of mammals.

  • Marine Biology - study of ocean plants and animals and their ecological relationships.

  • Medicine - the science which relates to the prevention, cure, or alleviation of disease.

  • Microbiology - the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things.

  • Molecular Biology - the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry.

  • Mycology - the study of fungi

  • Neurobiology - the branch of biology that deals with the anatomy and physiology and pathology of the nervous system.

  • Oceanography - the study of the ocean, including ocean life, environment, geography, weather, and other aspects influencing the ocean. See Marine Biology.

  • Ornithology - the study of birds.

  • Paleobiology - the study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms.

  • Parasitology - the study of parasites and parasitism.

  • Pathology - the study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences.

  • Pharmacology - the study of preparation and use of drugs and synthetic medicines.

  • Physiology - the biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts.

  • Primatology - the science that deals with primates

  • Protistology - the study of protists

  • Psychobiology - the study of mental functioning and behavior in relation to other biological processes

  • Toxicology - the study of how natural or man-made poisons cause undesirable effects in living organisms

  • Virology - study of viruses

  • Zoology - the study of animals and animal life, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior.
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