When you have a Power Factor less than 1 the voltage and current waveforms in an AC circuit are out of phase. Therefore at any given instant of time the work being done or energy being expended is calculated by multiplying the current x voltage. This reduces the wattage at any instant of time. When the Power Factor is one the instantaneous multiplication of the current and voltage would yield the maximum value with the waveforms in phase. This is much easier to see with a picture, but imagine a square wave for both voltage and current. Say for half the cycle the current is 2A and Voltage 3V and for the second half of the cycle both are zero. So for 1/2 the cycle the watts generated are 6 watts and zero for the second half of the cycle. Now if the two waveforms were 180 degrees out of phase the voltage would be zero when the current was 2A and the current would be zero when the voltage was 3V for zero watts. In this case the Power Factor would be zero.
advantages of low power factor
There is no such thing as a 'low power-factor' wattmeter. A wattmeter always reads true power, regardless of the load's power factor.
There is no disadvantage of unity power factor, because at unity power factor all the electrical power is efficiently utilized by the the load, and at lagging power factor some power is lost in the load's magneticfield.
A wattmeter reads the true power of a load, regardless of its power factor.
Power factor is determined by the nature (resistive, inductive, capacitive) of a load, not whether it is a low load or a high load.
Leading power factor results in higher receiving end voltage, which again results in increased power loss in Transformers & Cables same as lagging power factor.
When looking at power factor, it is the ratio of watts (true power) to VA. The power factor is how we measure power systems. A person with a low power factor like .26 will have a higher electricity bill.
It isn't! A transformer operating at no load has a very low power factor.
The disadvantages of TTL are as follows:High power consumptionIt functions just on 5vThe fan-out capacity for this device is lowLow input resistance
First of all, the effect of power factor is of importance only to industrial loads, not residential loads. Low power factor is undesirable. There is no practical advantage of a low power factor. Low power factor loads result in higher than necessary load currents flowing through the supply lines. If this were allowed to happen, then the supply conductors, transformers, circuit breakers, etc., would require a large amount of copper and, therefore, their cost. With an existing supply system, low power factor results in higher voltage drops and an increase in line losses. While this wouldn't directly affect the consumer, it would be expensive for the power supply utility. For this reason, power supply utilities will penalise a consumer if his load has too low a value of power factor, thus it becomes in the interest of that consumer to improve (increase) the power factor of his load.
The effects of leading power factor are:low consumption of reactive power and consequently low taxes.reduction in the load input current
A lower p.f means more total current for a given power dissipation. A larger source is required to deliver the true power.so it have high VA rating. It requires large diameter of wire size.
The load will draw a greater current than necessary. This means the cables, etc., supplying that load will have to have a greater cross-sectional area, therefore cost, than necessary.
The adverse effects of low power factor are:over consumpsion of reactive energyhigh input current
Advantages 1. low cost 2.low power consumption 3.highly reliable 4.secured Disadvantages 1.low transmission rate 2.smaller distance
at lower power factor current drawn by load is high and at higher pf the current drawn is less...
Nuclear Power Plants are used to help generate electricity. The advantages of Nuclear Power Plants are the efficiency and low immediate pollution. The disadvantages are the radioactive waste and possibility of a meltdown.
because of high resistance in the load.
An inductor has a low power factor because it is a reactive device, and the phase angle of the current with respect to voltage is not zero. In fact, power factor is the cosine of that phase angle, which means that a power factor of 1 means no phase angle, which means a resistive load. Anything else represents a reactive load and a power factor less than 1.In an ideal case, with perfect inductors and perfect conductors, the power factor would be zero, i.e. the phase angle would be 90 degrees lagging.
The load (in this case, your led lighting) determines its own power factor. While you can improve the power factor (move it towards unity) at the terminals, you are not actually changing the power factor of the load.
Reactive power flow results in a lower power factor. In transmission systems, this can be due to unequal source voltages. In load networks, this is usually due to motor load.
For open circuit test of transformer, the secondary is open circuit and the circuit impedance is largely inductive due to the core impedance having high L as compared to R. hence the power factor is reduced, thus , we use low power factor wattmeters.
Benefits. Speed​​. Extension system. Simplicity of the system. Cheapness and abundance of air. Disadvantages. High voice. Low power.
A load with a low power factor draws more load current than necessary, so the supply conductors need to have a greater cross-sectional area than would otherwise be necessary.