Astronomy
Stars
Toronto

What are the features of the sun?

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Answer

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Wiki User
07/30/2010

This is the basic information:

Basic characteristics -

1) G-type main sequence star comprising 99.8632 percent of the mass of the solar system.

2) Plasmatic, not solid.

3) Heavy-element rich star.

4) No defined boundry; the outer surface slowly dissipates into space.

5) Sun will only last approximately 6 billion more years, when it will expand into a massive red giant.

Structure -

1) Core - where fusion occurs.

2) Radiative zone - transfers heat from the core by means of rediation.

3) Convective zone - transfers heat from the radiative zone to the surface by convection.

4) Photosphere - zone where sunlight is free to exit into space from the core.

5) Atmosphere - region which extends from the photosphere to the outer regions of the sun.

Observation -

Distance from Earth: 1.496x10^8 km (1 AU)

Visual Brightness: -26.74

Absolute Magnitude: 4.83

Orbital -

Mean distance from Milky Way core: ~26,000 light years

Galatic Rotation Period: 2.25-2.5x10^8 years

Velocity: ~220km/s (relative to galatic centre); ~20km/s (relative to other stars nearby)

Physical characteristics -

Diameter - 1.392x10^6km (or, 109 times the diameter of Earth)

Radius - 6.955x10^5km

Circumference: 4.379x10^6km

Surface area: 6.0877x10^12km^2 (or, 11,990 times that of Earth)

Volume: 1.412x10^18km^3 (or, 1,300,000 times that of Earth)

Mass: 1.9891x10^30kg (or, 332,990 times that of Earth)

Density: 1.408x10^3kg/m^3

Surface gravity: 27.94g (or, 28 times that of Earth)

Temperature of the core: 15.7x10^6 kelvins

Temperature of the surface: 5,778 kelvins

Rotation chracteristics -

Obliquity: 7.25 degrees

Rotation period: 25.38 days

Rotation velocity: 7,189km/h

Composition (by mass) -

Hydrogen: 73.46%

Helium: 24.85%

Oxygen: 0.77%

Carbon: 0.29%

Iron: 0.16%

Sulphur: 0.12%

Neon: 0.12%

Nitrogen: 0.09%

Silicon: 0.07%

Magnesium: 0.05%