This is the basic information:
Basic characteristics -
1) G-type main sequence star comprising 99.8632 percent of the mass of the solar system.
2) Plasmatic, not solid.
3) Heavy-element rich star.
4) No defined boundry; the outer surface slowly dissipates into space.
5) Sun will only last approximately 6 billion more years, when it will expand into a massive red giant.
1) Core - where fusion occurs.
2) Radiative zone - transfers heat from the core by means of rediation.
3) Convective zone - transfers heat from the radiative zone to the surface by convection.
4) Photosphere - zone where sunlight is free to exit into space from the core.
5) Atmosphere - region which extends from the photosphere to the outer regions of the sun.
Distance from Earth: 1.496x10^8 km (1 AU)
Visual Brightness: -26.74
Absolute Magnitude: 4.83
Mean distance from Milky Way core: ~26,000 light years
Galatic Rotation Period: 2.25-2.5x10^8 years
Velocity: ~220km/s (relative to galatic centre); ~20km/s (relative to other stars nearby)
Physical characteristics -
Diameter - 1.392x10^6km (or, 109 times the diameter of Earth)
Radius - 6.955x10^5km
Surface area: 6.0877x10^12km^2 (or, 11,990 times that of Earth)
Volume: 1.412x10^18km^3 (or, 1,300,000 times that of Earth)
Mass: 1.9891x10^30kg (or, 332,990 times that of Earth)
Surface gravity: 27.94g (or, 28 times that of Earth)
Temperature of the core: 15.7x10^6 kelvins
Temperature of the surface: 5,778 kelvins
Rotation chracteristics -
Obliquity: 7.25 degrees
Rotation period: 25.38 days
Rotation velocity: 7,189km/h
Composition (by mass) -