What are the original capitals of the thirteen colonies?

The thirteen original colonies and their original capitals are sometimes difficult to determine due to shifting boundaries, changing name of colony, and changing European power in control at a given time. Some are determined as the place where the government body of the time met.

Delaware

  • Fort Kristina, 1635-1655
  • Fort Amsterdam, 1655-1664
  • New York NY, 1664-1682
  • Philadelphia PA, 1682-1704
  • New Castle, 1704-1777
  • Dover, 1777 to date

Pennsylvania

  • Philadelphia, 1682-1799
  • Lancaster, 1799-1812
  • Harrisburg, 1812 to date

New Jersey

  • Fort Amsterdam NY, 1625-1665
  • Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth) 1665-1673
  • Boston MA, 1673-1888
  • Perth Amboy (East NJ) and Burlington (West NJ), 1789-1702
  • Perth Amboy and Burlington served as joint capitals when NJ united in 1702-1784
  • Trenton, 1794 to date

Georgia

  • San Agustin FL, 1565-1733
  • Savannah, 1722 -1778
  • Augusta, 1778-1780
  • Heard's Fort, 1780-1781
  • Augusta, 1781-1782
  • Savannah, 1782
  • Ebenezer, 1782-1784
  • Savannah, 1784-1786
  • Augusta, 1786-1796
  • Louisville, 1796-1807
  • Milledgeville, 1807-1864
  • Macon, 1864-1865
  • Milledgeville, 1865-1868
  • Atlanta, 1868 to date

Connecticut

  • Fort Amsterdam NY, 1625-1639
  • Hartford, 1639-1640
  • New Haven, 1640-1686
  • Boston MA, 1686-1689
  • Hartford and New Haven joint capitals 1689-1875
  • Hartford, 1875 to date

Massachusetts

  • Plimouth, 1620-1686 (capital of Colony of New Plimouth)
  • Boston, 1630-1686 (capital of English Colony of Massachusetts)
  • Boston, 1686-1689 (capital of English Dominion of New England)
  • Plimouth, 1688-1692 (capital of dissidant Colony of New Plimouth)
  • Boston, 1688 to present

Maryland

  • St. Mary's City, 1634-1694
  • Annapolis, 1694 to date

South Carolina

  • San Agustin FL, 1565-1670
  • Charlestown, 1670-1786
  • Columbia, 1786 to date

New Hampshire

  • Boston MA, 1630-1680
  • Portsmouth, 1680-1686
  • Boston MA, 1686-1689
  • Portsmouth, 1689-1775
  • Exeter, 1775-1808
  • Concord, 1808 to date

Virginia

  • Jamestown, 1619-1698
  • Williamsburg, 1698-1790
  • Richmond, 1790 to date

New York

  • Fort Amsterdam, 1625-1664
  • New York City, 1664-1688
  • Boston MA, 1688-1689
  • New York City, 1689-1777
  • Kingston, 1777
  • Hurley, 1777
  • Poughkeepsie, 1777-1788
  • New York City, 1788-1797
  • Albany, 1797 to date

North Carolina

  • San Agustin FL, 1565-1670
  • Charlestown SC, 1670-1712
  • New Bern, 1712-1789
  • Fayetteville, 1789-1794
  • Raleigh, 1794 to date

Rhode Island

  • Providence, 1636-1639
  • Portsmouth, 1639-1663
  • Providence, 1663-1686
  • Boston MA, 1686-1689
  • Providence, 1689-1776
  • Rotated meeting at county seats Providence, Newport, East Greenwich, South Kingston, and Bristol, 1776-1854
  • Providence and Newport, joint capitals 1854-1900
  • Providence, 1900 to date