What basis did scientists use in determining the color and temperature of stars?
Scientists know from laboratory experiments what color objects are at different high temperatures. By comparing the color of the Sun (a somewhat bluish white-hot) they can determine how hot the surface of the Sun is. The temperature of the center of the Sun is known because of what scientists can calculate and guess at, knowing that the Sun's center undergoes a constant nuclear fission.
There are several things scientists can do to determine the surface temperature of a star. Formulas utilizing Wein's law and the Stefanâ??Boltzmann law can calculate stellar temperatures. However, for a rough estimate, scientists can also use the color of a star in order to determine surface temperature.
The star's surface temperature can be obtained from its color, basically. The star's temperature further down (e.g., its core temperature) need to be calculated based on models, using our knowledge of physics, including things such as pressure, thermal conductivity, properties of light, nuclear fusion, etc.
Enjar Hertzsprung lived in 1873-1967 and Henry Russell lived in 1877-1957. They were scientists who worked separtely. They found the same answer about the temperature and color of stars. The diagram that they made is called the Hertzsprung-Russell diargram. It shows the connection between surface temperature and color. The discoverers of the famous Hertzsprung-Russel diagram (HR diagram), which turned out to be an important tool for the analysis of stars.
Phoenix is a constellation, not a single star. The constellation contains a very large number of stars and other cosmic objects which have no astrophysical relationship with one another. It is simply that they are located in such a direction, and are so far away, that they appear to move together. The different objects vary enormously in their colour and surface temperatures.
The colours with which an element (metal or other) burns in a flame are the same colours which are absorbed by that element in the sun's spectrum. The colours are very specific to each element and show up as distinct black lines in the solar spectrum. By studying the spectrum it is possible to tell what elements are in the sun [or star] and also their relative abundance. If a star is moving away from…
No. Roman slavery was based upon birth, not race. Slavery was a class. The ancients, Roman and others, did not discriminate on the basis of skin color or race. No. Roman slavery was based upon birth, not race. Slavery was a class. The ancients, Roman and others, did not discriminate on the basis of skin color or race. No. Roman slavery was based upon birth, not race. Slavery was a class. The ancients, Roman and…