What caused the economy to collapse in the panic of 1819?
lots of things
The major cause of the Panic of 1819 was irresponsible banking policies. The Second Bank of the United States offered bad loans and paper money, then changed to more conservative credit policies, especially in the western states where state loans had been made to land speculators. When the Second Bank of the United States called in its loans the state banks began foreclosing on the heavily mortgaged farms and business properties they had financed. The…
The Panic of 1819 sowed the seeds for changes in America's banking and handling of debtors. Bank regulation and relief for debtors and the poor was instituted by the government on the state level in response to the Panic. The Panic also caused the public to want protective tariffs, which paved the way for the Tariff of 1828, of the Tariff of Abominations, to be passed almost a decade later.
It was the first major financial crisis the U.S. faced. It caused the dollar to be established, and indirectly caused a Constitutional Convention. It was brought on by the Embargo Act and the War of 1812. It caused mass bank failures, unemployment shot up, and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing.