Boston is further north.
It depends on where you are. If you are in most of the eastern states of the United States, Canada is north of the US, so Toronto is also to the north. But if you are in the eastern provinces of Canada, the reverse applies: the US is to the south of Canada.
Birmingham, Boston, Buffalo
Boston is further east.
Yes, Boston is north of New York City.
Oklahoma City is north of Dallas.
Paris is further north than New York City.
That would depend entirely on your starting point. For instance, LA is closer to Sacramento, but further from New York City. However, Boston is closer to New York City, but further from Sacramento.
Cairns is further north than Townsville.
Los Angeles is further north