What did the Athenian soldiers pledge to in their oath?
The oath of Hitler or the Hitler oath was a pledge of allegiance that the German soldiers were to be sworn by during the "Third Reich" from the start of the 1930's and until the war ended in 1945. It meant that they were sworn loyalty to Hitler. Both soldiers and officers and many civilians were sworn under this oath. I apologize for my poor north European English. :)
An oath is a pledge to to things according to the law. A bond is a pledge of money to guarentee that you will do things according to the law or forfeit the money. If you do not sign one, you will not be allowed to be the executor and the court will assign someone who will take the oath and post bond to serve in that function.
Roman soldiers swore their loyalty to the emperor, once there was an emperor. During the republic they swore their oath of allegiance to their commanding legate. This could be someone like Caesar,Pompey, Sulla, Marius, etc. After the fall of the republic and the establishment of the principate, the soldiers swore their oath to the emperor, or in the case Augustus, the"first citizen. This played a major role in establishing the prosperity of the time known…