What do nuclear reaction result in?

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There are actually three types of events that are commonly referred to as "nuclear reactions". The first, and simplest, is RADIOACTIVE DECAY. Some atoms have nuclei which are unstable; generally these are isotopes of very heavy elements. To achieve stability, the nucleus of such an atom will emit radiation, which can be in the form of particles or energy. The four most common emissions are alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons and gamma rays. Alpha particles are extremely large; they consist of two protons and two neutrons - basically a helium atom with no electrons. They carry a charge of 2+. Because they are so massive and energetic, alpha particles can cause serious damage to material. However, they have very little penetrating power - a sheet of paper will stop them, so alpha emitters are only a problem when one is exposed to them internally. Beta particles are basically stray, highly energetic electrons. They carry a 1- charge. They can be damaging, but also have little penetrating power - a sheet of aluminum foil will stop the average beta. However, they can be a concern in skin exposure - "beta burn" is much like serious sunburn. Gamma rays are highly penetrating. Like light, x-rays and other electromagnetic radiation, gammas consist of little packets, or "quanta" of energy. These packets behave like waves of energy under most conditions (although they will occasionally behave like particles, just to keep physicists on their toes). Gamma radiation can be extremely dangerous, and is shielded against with dense materials like lead. Neutrons are stray subatomic particles. Because they are massive, and carry no electric charge, they can penetrate for great distances, and do serious damage to materials & tissue. Neutrons can combine with nuclei of atoms when they collide, producing radioactive isotopes. This process is referred to as "activation". Neutrons are shielded against with materials that contain many hydrogen atoms, such as water or polythene. These provide many little nuclei for the neutron to bounce off of & slow down. Neutrons are also essential to the most used nuclear reaction, FISSION. When neutrons from radioactive decay of massive atome collide with nuclei of other massive atoms, sometimes they will cause the nucleus to split in two or more parts. This produces (a) several smaller atoms, (b) lots of radiation, including (1) alpha, beta, and gamma (2) more neutrons [important later, and [most useful to us] (3) heat - which can be used to create steam and drive turbines to create power. The new neutrons from each fission can then go on to produce new fissions - sort of like when billiard balls hit other billiard balls to continue the action on a pool table. The trick is to achieve "criticality", which is the point at which you are producing & using up neutrons at the same pace. A "subcritical" reaction produces too few neutrons, and eventually dies out; a "supercritical" reaction produces too many, and speeds up until it runs away [this is a _bad thing_, trust me on this]. Criticality is controlled by using control rods, which are inserted into or withdrawn from the reactor as needed. These rods absorb neutrons, allowing the number running around the reactor to be controlled. The third type of nuclear reaction is FUSION. We would really like to be able to produce a controlled, efficient fusion reaction since it appears to be (a) safer and less polluting in the long run than fission and (b) a nearly limitless source of energy. Unfortunately, laboratory experiments have only reached a point where we can retrieve 50% or less of the energy it takes to start a reaction. In fusion, light atoms (like Hydrogen) are slammed together with sufficient force that their nuclei combine, creating (a) a bigger atom, and (b) a lot of energy. Fusion is what powers the sun and other stars. Most scientists think that all matter in the universe started out as Hydrogen atoms (or simpler particles), and that everything that is made out of heavier elements (like the planets, our biosphere, and YOU) is the result of fusion in stars that died a long time ago, spreading their atoms into space when they exploded as novae. So we are all made of star-stuff, which certainly makes _me_ feel pretty special. In the laboratory, fusion is initiated by zapping pellets containing Hydrogen with high energy lasers. In hydrogen bombs (unfortunately, our only "practical" application of fusion) the reaction is started by a fission bomb packed around the hydrogen. The sun's reactions are driven by its tremendous force of gravity. Solar energy applications are a way we can indirectly take advantage of the enormous potential of fusion energy *right now*.
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How does a nuclear reaction take place?

First nuclear reactions always involve the nucleus and except for Kcapture beta decay never involve any of the electrons around thenucleus. There are seven different types of ordinary nuclear reactions: . fission , a massive nucleus splits into two lighterfragment nuclei (about 1/3 & 2/3 the mass ( Full Answer )

What is the importance of nuclear reaction?

the importance of nuclear reactions are very important.for energy purpose these reactions are very important because many energetic outgoing particles produce fission and fusion.

Does a nuclear change result from a chemical reaction?

Nope. (Well, the chemical reaction of the high explosives in an A- or H-bomb warhead result in high pressure that then results in a nuclear change (BOOM), but that's a side-effect, not a direct result of the chemical change.)

Why is a new element formed as a result of a nuclear reaction?

Elements are defined by the number of protons in the nucleus. Radioactive emission of an alpha or beta particle changes this. An alpha emission means a loss of two protons. A beta emission means a neutron becomes a proton. Either way, the nucleus of a different element is formed. Exposure of materia ( Full Answer )

Why nuclear reactions occur?

Where the nucleus is not in a stable configuration, it may change spontaneously to try to achieve a more stable state. This results in radioactivity of alpha, beta, and gamma types usually, though there are other variations. Also some heavy nuclei such as Uranium 235 and Plutonium 239 are easily fis ( Full Answer )

How do nuclear reaction works?

1 positive and 1 negative molecule atom thing react and fuse together.... i think don't have a marddy at me if it's wrong -.-

Where does nuclear reactions happen?

In nature, large scale nuclear fusion only happens in something like a star. Statistically, some atoms *could possibly* fuse if they happen to have just the right amount of energy (which is huge, by the way) added to them at just the right time, but even statisticians have a hard time justifying a ( Full Answer )

Three uses of nuclear reactions?

process heat, electricity, and water desalination. . medical treatment, diagnosis, and equipment sterilization. . industry and agriculture (upgraded industrial products, insect resistance, new agricultural products)

What occurs in a nuclear bombardment reaction?

Nuclear Bombardment Reactions: A method used to make a stable nucleus unstable by bombarding it with a stream of radiation, like alpha particles. When the alpha particles strike the stable atoms nucleus they combine to form a new nucleus! Rutherford was the first to document the reaction of alpha pa ( Full Answer )

What nuclear reaction is good for humans?

The conversion of two nuclei of hydrogen atoms into one Helium nucleus at sun and is very important for all types of life including humans.

How is the chain reaction in a nuclear reaction controlled?

The control of the chain reaction in a nuclear reaction is accomplished in a number of ways, and this will depend on the reaction being controlled. In nuclear reactors, the moderator acts to slow down neutrons that are produced in fissions. And in the very common pressurized water reactors, the nu ( Full Answer )

What is released during a nuclear reactions?

It depends somewhat on the reaction, however, in general energy is released, alpha, gamma, beta radiation and possible neutrons can be emitted and new or different elements can be formed.

How does a nuclear reaction become a chain reaction?

The idea of a chain reaction is that the neutrons released by fission go on to cause fission in other nearby atoms of the same element or others. For example: An atom of Uranium-235 decays, sending out 2 or 3 neutrons. If one of these neutrons is absorbed by another U-235 atom, that U-235 atom beco ( Full Answer )

Type of nuclear reaction that results in the production of synthetic element?

Synthetic elements are mostly produced by neutron capture. This is different from decay, fission, or fusion, but is more like fusion. In neutron capture, a free neutron is captured by the nucleus of an atom, producing a new isotope. The new isotope is likely to have too many neutrons, because it was ( Full Answer )

Why is a nuclear fusion a nuclear reaction?

Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which when a atom collides with another, and, instead of splitting each other apart like nuclear fission, if enough pressure and heat is available, they would merge into an compound or an heavier element. Fusion currently is not very easy to use, as it requ ( Full Answer )

What is a nuclear reaction coolant?

Presumably you mean nuclear reactor coolant? This is the fluid that transfers the reactor thermal output to the steam raising units in a PWR, or to the turbine in a BWR, in which cases it is natural water. Gas cooled reactors can use carbon dioxide or helium, and CANDU reactors use heavy water.

Why is a transmutation classified as a nuclear reaction?

Transmutation occurs when atoms of one element are changed into atoms of another element. This involves a change in the composition of the atomic nucleus in which the number of protons changes. Click on the related link below to see the Wikipedia article on nuclear transmutation.

How does a nuclear fusion reaction occur?

In the sun and other stars it occurs by protons reacting together to produce helium nuclei. See link below. On Earth experimenters are trying to fuse nuclei of deuterium and tritium as the best combination for success, but only very short (less than 1 second) bursts have so far been achieved.

What separates a chemical reaction from a nuclear reaction?

In a nuclear reaction, the nucleus of an atom undergoes a change. Common examples would be alpha decay, beta decay, fusion, and fusion. In each of those cases, different elements are formed in the process. This never happens in ordinary chemical reactions. In chemical reactions, it is the electron ( Full Answer )

What is nuclear fission and nuclear fusion reactions?

Nuclear fission is a process, in which a heavy nucleus is broken down into two or more medium heavy fragments. Nuclear fusion is a process, which involves fusion of two or more lighter nuclei to give a heavier nuclei.

What do stars have to do with nuclear reactions?

The sun and the other stars produce light and heat by the fusion thermonuclear reactions going on in their core. The first full stage of a star's life is the primary phase where it is fusing hydrogen to helium, then helium starts fusing into nitrogen, and so on until iron, at which point the reactio ( Full Answer )

Can nuclear reaction produce light?

absolutely , the multiple chain reactions produced sub atomically during a nuclear reaction are uncontrollable and happen faster than the speed of light .many adverse bi-products are produced mostly which are harmful including u.v radiation when light is created by light . High energy radiation t ( Full Answer )

What nuclear reaction does the us use?

All thermal reactors, that is those using a moderator to slow down the fission neutrons, use the same reaction. In the US all commercial reactors (104 of them) are either PWR or BWR types.

How do you stop a nuclear reaction?

You cool down the atoms so that they lose energy; without the required energy the atoms will not be able to fuse.

How is a nuclear chain reaction started?

Uranium produces spontaneous fissions in small numbers, and each fission releases two or three free neutrons, so there is always a source of neutrons present in any assembly of uranium fuel. If enough fuel is assembled, in a geometrical array with a moderator, the conditions are there to start a cha ( Full Answer )

Is nuclear reaction good or bad?

nuclear reaction are bad because it kill people who live near by, it can cause long term effect on the people who live for a nuclear explosion and it can be bad for environment too!

What is the mass lost in a nuclear reaction?

The mass isn't really lost, it's converted to energy via E=mc². The same thing happens in chemical reactions, it's just not noticeable. For example, burning one mole of carbon produces about 393500 J. Using E=mc² 393500 J=m(3.00x10^8 m/s)² m=393500 J/(3.00x10^8 m/s)² =4.37x10^-12 Kg ( Full Answer )

Why does a nuclear fission reaction generally not result in an uncontrolled chain reaction?

A nuclear fission reaction generally does not result in an uncontrolled chain reaction because of the release of binding energy. This contributes heat and energy into the reaction, which tends to reduce the density of the fissile material, i.e. making it larger, and thus making it subcritical. Th ( Full Answer )

Why nuclear reactions are more explosive?

Nuclear reactions are more "explosive", i.e. energetic, because they depend on the release of binding energy, which is also called the strong force, or the strong interaction. (The four fundamental forces in nature are the strong force, the electromagnetic force, the weak force, and gravity.) Cont ( Full Answer )

Where do the nuclear reactions start in the Sun?

In the central core, with the proton of the hydrogen atom. Four protons, which have been ionized to remove their electron, are fused together. Two of the protons are changed by the weak interaction into neutrons, and you have a helium nucleus. This is accompanied by the release of energy as heat and ( Full Answer )

Is nuclear fusion a chemical or nuclear reaction?

Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction, not a chemical reaction. In nuclear fusion, the nuclei of atoms combine in order to form new atoms (hence the term nuclear reaction ). This type of reaction is mainly concerned with the movement of protons and neutrons. This is opposed to chemical reactions, w ( Full Answer )

What is the reaction for Nuclear fusion?

That depends on the temperature and pressure. Under different conditions different elements can fuse, starting at the lowest temperature and pressure deuterium and tritium fuse to make helium. In the end at the highest temperature and pressure a variety of reactants fuse to produce a mixture of nick ( Full Answer )

Why do atoms undergo nuclear reactions?

The short answer is that atoms undergo nuclear reactions because they are unstable. The slightly longer answer that there are interactions between the strong atomic force, the electromagnetic force, and the weak atomic force that causes nuclei to be unstable. The strong atomic force holds prot ( Full Answer )

How a controlled nuclear reactions can be conducted?

we will start with this statement cadmium rods have the property to absorb nutrons now we know that for nuclear reactions it is necessary for the neutrons to strike the nucleus of the atom and thus with the help of cadmium rods we can control the number of neutrons striking the nucleus and we can co ( Full Answer )

Is energy conserved in a nuclear reaction?

Yes. Basically, energy is ALWAYS conserved. The popular saying, that in a nuclear reaction mass is converted to energy, is plainly wrong, since both mass and energy are conserved. Read about "mass deficit", for example in the Wikipedia, for more details.

How are nuclear reactions controlled?

Nuclear reactors are controlled by changing the geometry of the fuel rods to slow down the reaction, dropping them into moderators, or removing them from the hot part of the reactor. The old phrase (from my day) was "ax the mandrel, she's running HOT!" meaning drop all the fuel rods into the moderat ( Full Answer )

Where in ntature does nuclear reaction occur?

In the interior of stars, where matter is at an extreme temperature and pressure. Also, wherever there are radioactive isotopes - for example, on Earth - these will gradually decay.

What are dangers associated with the nuclear reactions?

Generally the reaction results in radiation. If it is ionizing radiation the result would be damage to living organisms. A runaway reaction would result in a very hot mass of radioactive material. Properly designed, the result could be a weapon.

When was the first nuclear reactions done?

That was in Japan when the U.S. attacked them with our nuclear bombs. Which was the attack of Pearl Harbor, obviously not in Hawaii, we attacked them in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.