What do nuclear reaction result in?
There are actually three types of events that are commonly referred to as "nuclear reactions". The first, and simplest, is RADIOACTIVE DECAY. Some atoms have nuclei which are unstable; generally these are isotopes of very heavy elements. To achieve stability, the nucleus of such an atom will emit radiation, which can be in the form of particles or energy. The four most common emissions are alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons and gamma rays. Alpha particles are extremely large; they consist of two protons and two neutrons - basically a helium atom with no electrons. They carry a charge of 2+. Because they are so massive and energetic, alpha particles can cause serious damage to material. However, they have very little penetrating power - a sheet of paper will stop them, so alpha emitters are only a problem when one is exposed to them internally. Beta particles are basically stray, highly energetic electrons. They carry a 1- charge. They can be damaging, but also have little penetrating power - a sheet of aluminum foil will stop the average beta. However, they can be a concern in skin exposure - "beta burn" is much like serious sunburn. Gamma rays are highly penetrating. Like light, x-rays and other electromagnetic radiation, gammas consist of little packets, or "quanta" of energy. These packets behave like waves of energy under most conditions (although they will occasionally behave like particles, just to keep physicists on their toes). Gamma radiation can be extremely dangerous, and is shielded against with dense materials like lead. Neutrons are stray subatomic particles. Because they are massive, and carry no electric charge, they can penetrate for great distances, and do serious damage to materials & tissue. Neutrons can combine with nuclei of atoms when they collide, producing radioactive isotopes. This process is referred to as "activation". Neutrons are shielded against with materials that contain many hydrogen atoms, such as water or polythene. These provide many little nuclei for the neutron to bounce off of & slow down. Neutrons are also essential to the most used nuclear reaction, FISSION. When neutrons from radioactive decay of massive atome collide with nuclei of other massive atoms, sometimes they will cause the nucleus to split in two or more parts. This produces (a) several smaller atoms, (b) lots of radiation, including (1) alpha, beta, and gamma (2) more neutrons [important later, and [most useful to us] (3) heat - which can be used to create steam and drive turbines to create power. The new neutrons from each fission can then go on to produce new fissions - sort of like when billiard balls hit other billiard balls to continue the action on a pool table. The trick is to achieve "criticality", which is the point at which you are producing & using up neutrons at the same pace. A "subcritical" reaction produces too few neutrons, and eventually dies out; a "supercritical" reaction produces too many, and speeds up until it runs away [this is a _bad thing_, trust me on this]. Criticality is controlled by using control rods, which are inserted into or withdrawn from the reactor as needed. These rods absorb neutrons, allowing the number running around the reactor to be controlled. The third type of nuclear reaction is FUSION. We would really like to be able to produce a controlled, efficient fusion reaction since it appears to be (a) safer and less polluting in the long run than fission and (b) a nearly limitless source of energy. Unfortunately, laboratory experiments have only reached a point where we can retrieve 50% or less of the energy it takes to start a reaction. In fusion, light atoms (like Hydrogen) are slammed together with sufficient force that their nuclei combine, creating (a) a bigger atom, and (b) a lot of energy. Fusion is what powers the sun and other stars. Most scientists think that all matter in the universe started out as Hydrogen atoms (or simpler particles), and that everything that is made out of heavier elements (like the planets, our biosphere, and YOU) is the result of fusion in stars that died a long time ago, spreading their atoms into space when they exploded as novae. So we are all made of star-stuff, which certainly makes _me_ feel pretty special. In the laboratory, fusion is initiated by zapping pellets containing Hydrogen with high energy lasers. In hydrogen bombs (unfortunately, our only "practical" application of fusion) the reaction is started by a fission bomb packed around the hydrogen. The sun's reactions are driven by its tremendous force of gravity. Solar energy applications are a way we can indirectly take advantage of the enormous potential of fusion energy *right now*.
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Which of the objects below is a result of the spinning and gravity causing a nuclear reaction at the core center of this ball of clouds and dust?
I am sorry that I don't have any more information but I know it isn't an asteroid, I just did a test and got it wrong so its either the sun earth or the moon! I am sorry again! it is the sun!
The loss of mass in the reaction in accordance with the equation e=mc2. This mass is generally understood to take the form of "binding energy" in the atomic nucleus.
First nuclear reactions always involve the nucleus and except for Kcapture beta decay never involve any of the electrons around thenucleus. There are seven different types of ordinary nuclear reactions: . fission , a massive nucleus splits into two lighterfragment nuclei (about 1/3 & 2/3 the mass… of the originalnucleus) and several free neutrons, fission can happenspontaneously in some isotopes (e.g. plutonium-240) but is usuallytriggered by the capture of a neutron, as fission always producesfree neutrons it is possible to produce a neutron chain reaction tokeep the process going . fusion , light nuclei join forming a heavier nucleus,this reaction can only happen under conditions of very hightemperature and pressure (causing the nuclei to be fully ionized,traveling at high velocity, and pressed tightly together) it isvery hard to to get started and keep going (except deep insidestars) Note that fusion is the only one of theseseven nuclear reactions that is affected in any way by thetemperature or pressure of the environment it happens in . alpha decay , a nucleus spontaneously ejects a heliumnucleus (i.e. alpha particle) . beta- decay , a neutron in the nucleus spontaneouslytransforms into a proton and the nucleus ejects an electron and anelectron antineutrino . beta+ decay , a proton in the nucleus spontaneouslytransforms into a neutron and the nucleus ejects an positron and anelectron neutrino . K capture beta decay, a proton in the nucleusspontaneously transforms into a neutron and the nucleus captures anelectron from the innermost (i.e. K) electron shell and ejects anelectron neutrino . gamma decay , a nucleus in a metastable (i.e. excessenergy) state spontaneously relaxes its proton and/or neutronshells to a lower energy state and ejects a gamma photon with anenergy equal to the energy lost in the nucleus However if you include other subatomic particles not present inordinary matter (e.g. muons, antimatter particles, strangeparticles) a much wider and more confusing variety of nuclearreactions can happen that are beyond the scope of the originalquestion. I will only mention one of these nuclear reactions: muoncatalysed cold fusion. This is interesting because it permits thefusion nuclear reaction to happen at ordinary room temperature. In muon catalyzed cold fusion the electrons around hydrogen nucleiare replaced with muons (particles identical to electrons in everyway except that they have 200 times the mass), being much moremassive than electrons their orbitals are much smaller. So muchsmaller that the nuclei can come close enough to each other atordinary room temperature that the nuclei can fuse! The fusionenergy release causes the product nucleus to lose its muons andbecome ionized. This process is called "muon catalyzed" becausethese free muons can now replace electrons around fresh hydrogennuclei, repeating the nuclear reaction over and over withoutrequiring any additional muons. The only problem with muoncatalyzed cold fusion is that the muons required to begin thisnuclear reaction are very expensive to produce. ( Full Answer )
the importance of nuclear reactions are very important.for energy purpose these reactions are very important because many energetic outgoing particles produce fission and fusion.
Nope. (Well, the chemical reaction of the high explosives in an A- or H-bomb warhead result in high pressure that then results in a nuclear change (BOOM), but that's a side-effect, not a direct result of the chemical change.)
In nuclear reactions, it is mainly the nucleus of the atom that reacts i.e. the neutrons and protons. In a chemical reaction, it is the electrons that react.
How do the masses of the atoms produced as a result of fusion reaction differ from the masses of the atoms that result from a nuclear fission reaction?
Fusion: smaller atoms are made into bigger atoms (2 Deuterium atoms -> 1 Helium atom). Fission: larger atoms are made into smaller atoms (1 Uranium 235 (Z=92) + 1 neutron -> 1 Krypton 92 (Z=36) + 1 Barium 141 (Z=56))
Elements are defined by the number of protons in the nucleus. Radioactive emission of an alpha or beta particle changes this. An alpha emission means a loss of two protons. A beta emission means a neutron becomes a proton. Either way, the nucleus of a different element is formed. Exposure of materia…ls to neutrons in a reactor also causes changes, for example Uranium 235 and Plutonium 239 undergo fission leading to a range of different nuclei as fission fragments, and many other substances become radioactive and then subsequently decay into other elements. This can be made use of in producing active isotopes for medical use. ( Full Answer )
Where the nucleus is not in a stable configuration, it may change spontaneously to try to achieve a more stable state. This results in radioactivity of alpha, beta, and gamma types usually, though there are other variations. Also some heavy nuclei such as Uranium 235 and Plutonium 239 are easily fis…sioned or split when a neutron is captured, because the binding energy of the resulting lighter nuclei is greater than that of the heavy one. ( Full Answer )
The nuclear reactions result in mass loss (or mass defect) that transforms into energy according to formula: E = mc2 , wher c is the light
1 positive and 1 negative molecule atom thing react and fuse together.... i think don't have a marddy at me if it's wrong -.-
Provided the fission products are looked after carefully there is very little effect on the environment
In nature, large scale nuclear fusion only happens in something like a star. Statistically, some atoms *could possibly* fuse if they happen to have just the right amount of energy (which is huge, by the way) added to them at just the right time, but even statisticians have a hard time justifying a… probability that remote as *possible*.. In a laboratory setting, we usually need huge tools like particle accelerators to give protons and electrons enough energy to create fusionable activity. Still hunting for that magic room temperature nuclear fusion, though.. Nuclear fission , on the other hand, is much more commonplace, especially in the larger atoms (which of course begs the question, "where did they come from, if our star is only fusing helium?", but that line of questioning has been the ruin of many a promising physics careers). Fission is better looked up in things like radioactive decay, half life... some links below might be a good start. ( Full Answer )
process heat, electricity, and water desalination. . medical treatment, diagnosis, and equipment sterilization. . industry and agriculture (upgraded industrial products, insect resistance, new agricultural products)
Nuclear Bombardment Reactions: A method used to make a stable nucleus unstable by bombarding it with a stream of radiation, like alpha particles. When the alpha particles strike the stable atoms nucleus they combine to form a new nucleus! Rutherford was the first to document the reaction of alpha pa…rticles striking N-14 creating O-17 and H-1. ( Full Answer )
The conversion of two nuclei of hydrogen atoms into one Helium nucleus at sun and is very important for all types of life including humans.
The control of the chain reaction in a nuclear reaction is accomplished in a number of ways, and this will depend on the reaction being controlled. In nuclear reactors, the moderator acts to slow down neutrons that are produced in fissions. And in the very common pressurized water reactors, the nu…clear chain is controlled by the density of the water, which is a function of the temperature of that water. Let's take a quick look. A nuclear reactor (a pressurized water one) is idling at a few percent power while we roll the turbines and warm up the secondary plant. The control rods have been pulled to get us up to criticality and set up an average operating temperature in the core. The nuclear chain reaction is happening, and as these reactions release energy (and a few more neutrons), they heat the water. As the water gets hotter, it becomes less dense. The less dense water is less effective as a moderator (it doesn't slow down the neutrons quite as well), and as a result, more neutrons fail to slow down sufficiently. These neutrons, the "less slowed" ones, have a lower chance of causing another fission, and they escape. An equilibrium is established. As the main steam stops are opened, steam rushes down the headers and the turbines begin to spin. In the steam generator, the primary coolant that has been circulating there to make the steam comes back to the reactor cooler. That's because the feed pumps are pushing more cooler water into the steam generators as steam is being drawn off. That primary coolant returning to the reactor at a lower temperature is more dense, and is a more effective moderator. More neutrons are slowed down, and more fissions occur. More power is generated, and the reactor coolant leaves the reactor hotter and less dense. A new equilibrium is reached where the average temperature in the primary coolant is "back to normal" and more fissions are happening. More energy drawn off (taken out of the secondary system) has caused the primary coolant to more effectively moderate the reactor. More moderation means more fissions, and more power out. The temperature differential across the reactor is wider, but the average temperature is essentially the same. If you have been able to wade through all that, you know that the chain reaction in the reactor is controlled "automatically" by the amount of steam demand in the secondary system. The control rods are pulled to set up the initial conditions, and then the reactor core operates "by itself" to generate power. The chain is controlled by the amount of energy taken out of the secondary system. ( Full Answer )
It depends somewhat on the reaction, however, in general energy is released, alpha, gamma, beta radiation and possible neutrons can be emitted and new or different elements can be formed.
What type of nuclear reaction results in a single nucleus undergoing a decrease in atomic number and the release of a helium nucleus?
This is emission of an alpha particle which is a helium nucleus. Thus the atomic number decreases by two and the atomic weight by four, in such a radioactive decay
I found the website K1 Project very helpful. They had severalarticles underneath their Learn/Energy tab which should answer anyquestions about nuclear fusion.
The idea of a chain reaction is that the neutrons released by fission go on to cause fission in other nearby atoms of the same element or others. For example: An atom of Uranium-235 decays, sending out 2 or 3 neutrons. If one of these neutrons is absorbed by another U-235 atom, that U-235 atom beco…mes unstable, and quickly splits, again sending out 2 or 3 of its own neutrons (plus a relatively large amount of energy). If there are enough uranium atoms close enough to continue the process (a critical mass), the reaction escalates exponentially and becomes self-sustaining. If the release of neutrons is just enough to maintain fissioning, you have a nuclear reactor. If there are many neutrons released all at once, you have a nuclear bomb. ( Full Answer )
Synthetic elements are mostly produced by neutron capture. This is different from decay, fission, or fusion, but is more like fusion. In neutron capture, a free neutron is captured by the nucleus of an atom, producing a new isotope. The new isotope is likely to have too many neutrons, because it was… a neutron that it captured. With too many neutrons, it wants to undergo decay by converting a neutron into a proton, and emitting a negative beta particle. This does not alter the mass number, but it does increase the number of protons in the atom by one, and so it increases the atomic number by one. For example, an atom of 237 Np captures a neutron and becomes 238 Np, which decays by negative beta decay to become 238 Pu. Some synthetic elements are produced by fusion. ( Full Answer )
yes ther is a biometaphol carbophon reaction wich reacts with the immense heat and creates a nucleur reaction
Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which when a atom collides with another, and, instead of splitting each other apart like nuclear fission, if enough pressure and heat is available, they would merge into an compound or an heavier element. Fusion currently is not very easy to use, as it requ…ires extreme pressure and heat in order to work, but if that energy is able to be used, it is very powerful. You might have heard of hydrogen bombs, which use nuclear fusion. The heat is generated by x-rays and the pressure fuses hydrogen together to make a big kaboom. Our sun uses fusion to create light. In the core of the sun, the intense gravity creates heat and pressure, which is the perfect condition for nuclear fusion. The gravity pull collides hydrogen atoms together, which form helium, at that point creating a blast of energy, which is the light you see during the day. ( Full Answer )
Presumably you mean nuclear reactor coolant? This is the fluid that transfers the reactor thermal output to the steam raising units in a PWR, or to the turbine in a BWR, in which cases it is natural water. Gas cooled reactors can use carbon dioxide or helium, and CANDU reactors use heavy water.
Transmutation occurs when atoms of one element are changed into atoms of another element. This involves a change in the composition of the atomic nucleus in which the number of protons changes. Click on the related link below to see the Wikipedia article on nuclear transmutation.
In the sun and other stars it occurs by protons reacting together to produce helium nuclei. See link below. On Earth experimenters are trying to fuse nuclei of deuterium and tritium as the best combination for success, but only very short (less than 1 second) bursts have so far been achieved.
In a nuclear reaction, the nucleus of an atom undergoes a change. Common examples would be alpha decay, beta decay, fusion, and fusion. In each of those cases, different elements are formed in the process. This never happens in ordinary chemical reactions. In chemical reactions, it is the electron…s that are involved , not the nucleus of the atom. ( Full Answer )
Nuclear fission is a process, in which a heavy nucleus is broken down into two or more medium heavy fragments. Nuclear fusion is a process, which involves fusion of two or more lighter nuclei to give a heavier nuclei.
The sun and the other stars produce light and heat by the fusion thermonuclear reactions going on in their core. The first full stage of a star's life is the primary phase where it is fusing hydrogen to helium, then helium starts fusing into nitrogen, and so on until iron, at which point the reactio…n stops. ( Full Answer )
absolutely , the multiple chain reactions produced sub atomically during a nuclear reaction are uncontrollable and happen faster than the speed of light .many adverse bi-products are produced mostly which are harmful including u.v radiation when light is created by light . High energy radiation t…hat travels faster than the speed of light in the medium it is traveling through produces Cherenkov Radiation, a blue glow. However without shielding (water, leaded concrete, offset viewing mirrors, etc.) to prevent the original radiation from reaching you, you will be dead in a couple weeks from Radiation Poisoning. The Cherenkov Radiation had nothing to do with this, it just warns you. ( Full Answer )
All thermal reactors, that is those using a moderator to slow down the fission neutrons, use the same reaction. In the US all commercial reactors (104 of them) are either PWR or BWR types.
When a radioactive atom goes through beta decay in order to make itself stable, it releases an electron. When this happens that electron is then called a beta particle.
You cool down the atoms so that they lose energy; without the required energy the atoms will not be able to fuse.
Uranium produces spontaneous fissions in small numbers, and each fission releases two or three free neutrons, so there is always a source of neutrons present in any assembly of uranium fuel. If enough fuel is assembled, in a geometrical array with a moderator, the conditions are there to start a cha…in reaction, and this will happen whenever the reactor approaches what is called criticality, which is when the number of free neutrons present starts to reach a high level. The approach to criticality is controlled by slowly withdrawing the control rods, and if at stages the rods are held steady, the neutron flux also steadies out. As criticality is approached, the flux gets higher and when the rods are pulled a bit more beyond the critical point it will start to increase exponentially, the reactor is then said to be supercritical and the neutron flux will go on increasing with a certain doubling time. So with a nuclear reactor there is no need to do anything to cause "ignition" as in a coal furnace, it is just a matter of getting the amount of neutron absorber reduced to the point where the reactor is critical. Note that often a neutron source is loaded into the reactor as a permanent feature, this is done to enable the flux measuring instruments to see a reading during the approach to critical, but even without this the reactor will still start itself, if the rods are withdrawn. ( Full Answer )
nuclear reaction are bad because it kill people who live near by, it can cause long term effect on the people who live for a nuclear explosion and it can be bad for environment too!
Nuclear fission of fissile isotopes of uranium and plutonium release an enormous quantity of energy; in the future the nuclear fusion will be used.
The mass isn't really lost, it's converted to energy via E=mcÂ². The same thing happens in chemical reactions, it's just not noticeable. For example, burning one mole of carbon produces about 393500 J. Using E=mcÂ² 393500 J=m(3.00x10^8 m/s)Â² m=393500 J/(3.00x10^8 m/s)Â² =4.37x10^-12 Kg… Note that a Joule(J) is a (KgâmÂ²)/sÂ² so that's why the units cancel out to give Kg. Anyways, you see that the mass "lost" is very small, if you don't understand how small 4.37x10^-12 Kg is, write it out, it's 0.00000000000437 Kg. A good analytical balance wouldn't even be able to detect such a small "loss" in mass. However when we're dealing with nuclear reactions we're usually talking about converting mass to energy and because E=mcÂ² and the speed of light(c) is such a large number we get a lot of energy from a small "loss" in mass! That's the only reason we care about the small "loss" in mass when we're talking about nuclear reactions. Notice that I put the word "loss" in quotations because like I said, the mass is not really lost, it's just converted to energy. ( Full Answer )
A nuclear fission reaction generally does not result in an uncontrolled chain reaction because of the release of binding energy. This contributes heat and energy into the reaction, which tends to reduce the density of the fissile material, i.e. making it larger, and thus making it subcritical. Th…e hard part in creating an uncontrolled fission reaction is in holding the fissile material in a supercritical geometry long enough to convert all of it. This requires enormous pressure and high technology. Also, the result of a fission reaction includes neutrons that are often too energetic to properly go on and create subsequent reactions. In a controlled reaction, a moderator is required to "slow down" the neutrons. In an uncontrolled reaction, the dynamics are such that only prompt neutrons are needed to support the chain reaction, a state we call super prompt criticality, but in order to sustain this, the enrichment of the fuel must be above a certain level, typically greater than 20 percent U-235. Modern weapons are in the high 80's and 90's percent. ( Full Answer )
Nuclear reactions are more "explosive", i.e. energetic, because they depend on the release of binding energy, which is also called the strong force, or the strong interaction. (The four fundamental forces in nature are the strong force, the electromagnetic force, the weak force, and gravity.) Cont…rast this with chemical reactions, such as the detonation of TNT, and you have many, many more orders of magnitude per unit of source mass with nuclear. ( Full Answer )
In the central core, with the proton of the hydrogen atom. Four protons, which have been ionized to remove their electron, are fused together. Two of the protons are changed by the weak interaction into neutrons, and you have a helium nucleus. This is accompanied by the release of energy as heat and… other forms of radiation. ( Full Answer )
Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction, not a chemical reaction. In nuclear fusion, the nuclei of atoms combine in order to form new atoms (hence the term nuclear reaction ). This type of reaction is mainly concerned with the movement of protons and neutrons. This is opposed to chemical reactions, w…hich are mainly concerned with the interaction of electrons - the atoms remain of the same element, and the atomic nuclei are unchanged. ( Full Answer )
That depends on the temperature and pressure. Under different conditions different elements can fuse, starting at the lowest temperature and pressure deuterium and tritium fuse to make helium. In the end at the highest temperature and pressure a variety of reactants fuse to produce a mixture of nick…el and iron, then fusion stops. The full list of fusion reaction equations is several hundred equations long and is best found in a book on stellar evolution. ( Full Answer )
The short answer is that atoms undergo nuclear reactions because they are unstable. The slightly longer answer that there are interactions between the strong atomic force, the electromagnetic force, and the weak atomic force that causes nuclei to be unstable. The strong atomic force holds prot…ons and neutrons together. (It also holds quarks together to form protons and neutrons.) It is an attractive force. It is the strongest force in the universe, at least at the sub-atomic level. The electromagnetic force holds nuclei and electrons together. It is both attractive, between protons and electrons, and repulsive, between protons and protons. This repulsion between protons is a chief contributor to the instability of larger nuclei. The reason for this is that both forces depend on distance, but the strong force is impacted more by distance than the electromagnetic force. As a result, in larger nuclei, (larger than lead=82), the electromagnetic force starts to win out, and make the nucleus unstable. Thirdly, is the weak atomic force, which participates in energy exchange between particles. It causes the stability of the nucleus to be dependent on the ratio of protons to neutrons, and can cause radioactivity (instability) even in light nuclides, such as carbon-14. ( Full Answer )
we will start with this statement cadmium rods have the property to absorb nutrons now we know that for nuclear reactions it is necessary for the neutrons to strike the nucleus of the atom and thus with the help of cadmium rods we can control the number of neutrons striking the nucleus and we can co…ntrol our nuclear reactions ( Full Answer )
Yes. Basically, energy is ALWAYS conserved. The popular saying, that in a nuclear reaction mass is converted to energy, is plainly wrong, since both mass and energy are conserved. Read about "mass deficit", for example in the Wikipedia, for more details.
Nuclear reactors are controlled by changing the geometry of the fuel rods to slow down the reaction, dropping them into moderators, or removing them from the hot part of the reactor. The old phrase (from my day) was "ax the mandrel, she's running HOT!" meaning drop all the fuel rods into the moderat…or structure. ( Full Answer )
In the interior of stars, where matter is at an extreme temperature and pressure. Also, wherever there are radioactive isotopes - for example, on Earth - these will gradually decay.
Generally the reaction results in radiation. If it is ionizing radiation the result would be damage to living organisms. A runaway reaction would result in a very hot mass of radioactive material. Properly designed, the result could be a weapon.
That was in Japan when the U.S. attacked them with our nuclear bombs. Which was the attack of Pearl Harbor, obviously not in Hawaii, we attacked them in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.