What do scientists use to predict the locations of electrons in atoms?
The answer is probability.
They show how many bonds an atom can create, and whether it gains or loses electrons. (Atoms with 5-7 valence electrons tend to gain electrons, atoms with 1-3 valence electrons tend to lose electrons, atoms with 4 valence electrons can do either, and atoms with 8 valence electrons don't naturally bond)
When electrons were discovered scientist inferred that neutral atoms contain positive charges because?
Electrons are one component of atoms - and atoms always exist unless they are the heavier radioactive kind. In this case, things like Uranium will break down into atoms of other elements - due to the loss of electrons. Although the two are often confused - an electron is not solid in the sense that the atoms are. It's beyond the scope of this site to explain how they all work but suffice to say…
scientists can only figure very limited things about electrons eg. how many protons electrons and neutrons there are in each atom but we cannot see the atoms even with an electron microscope so technically isotopes ions bonds and compounds are the main things unless you are in university or past grade 11
Most atoms are stable when they have a full valence shell or octet. Atoms will lose or gain electrons to form a full octet. So Fluorine with 7 valence electrons will gain one electron to have an octet and form a -1 ion. Calcium with 2 valence electrons will lose those two valence electrons to reach its octet and for a +2 ion.
Metal atoms bond together with metallic bonds. The metallic bond has been described as a lattice of positive ions surrounded by a cloud of electrons. This simple picture is close to the truth for the alkali metals, Li, sodium etc in group 1. The more advanced model based on the above is band theory, developed by physicists and material scientists, where the free electrons are delocalised in many, what chemists would term, orbitals of very…
All magnetism is due to circulating electric currents. In magnetic materials the magnetism is produced by electrons orbiting within the atoms; In most substances the magnetic effects of different electrons cancel each other out, but in some, such as iron, a net magnetic field can be induced by aligning the atoms.
What part of Dalton's theory of was disproved when scientists discovered that atoms contain protons electrons and neutrons?
John Dalton believed that atoms were the fundamental building blocks of matter, and that they could not be created, destroyed or split. However he was wrong, because atoms are made out of subatomic particles such as Protons, Neutrons and Electrons - and later still, it was discovered Protons and Neutrons too are made of even smaller particles.
The octet rule says that atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have eight electrons in their outer electron shell . Scientists have found that an atom is most stable with eight electrons in the outer layer, and the atoms appear to try and move toward this equilibrium. octet rule should not really be considered a rule at all, as there are many exceptions to the behavior.