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Mapping and Cartography
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What does a map have?



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Graphic representation, drawn to scale and usually on a flat surface, of features - usually geographic, geologic, or geopolitical - of an area of the Earth or of any celestial body. Globes are maps represented on the surface of a sphere. Cartography is the art and science of making maps and charts. Major types of maps include topographic maps, showing features of the Earth's land surface; nautical charts, representing coastal and marine areas; hydrographic charts, which detail ocean depths and currents; and aeronautical charts, which detail surface features and air routes.

conventionalized representation of spatial phenomena on a plane surface. Unlike photographs, maps are selective and may be prepared to show various quantitative and qualitative facts, including boundaries, physical features, patterns, and distribution. Each point on such a map corresponds to a geographical position in accordance with a definite scale and projection. Maps may also represent such comparative data as industrial power, population density, and birth and death rates.