Graphic representation, drawn to scale and usually on a flat
surface, of features - usually geographic, geologic, or
geopolitical - of an area of the Earth or of any celestial body.
Globes are maps represented on the surface of a sphere. Cartography
is the art and science of making maps and charts. Major types of
maps include topographic maps, showing features of the Earth's land
surface; nautical charts, representing coastal and marine areas;
hydrographic charts, which detail ocean depths and currents; and
aeronautical charts, which detail surface features and air
conventionalized representation of spatial phenomena on a plane surface. Unlike photographs, maps are selective and may be prepared to show various quantitative and qualitative facts, including boundaries, physical features, patterns, and distribution. Each point on such a map corresponds to a geographical position in accordance with a definite scale and projection. Maps may also represent such comparative data as industrial power, population density, and birth and death rates.