What is a basic feature of the free-market system?
A basic feature of the free market system is that consumers make their own economic choices
Maps have changed over time, and firm rules took even longer to establish and to become consistent on all maps. Any map today will or should indicate all of the following in some form, at some place on the document: . Title (as simple as Joe's House, or a city name, country, state or country.) …. Orientation (where is North). Today Cartographers put North at the top of the map, but that hasn't always been true. . Scale, and while not essential to find Joe's House, it is an essential part of the map making craft. If the map is not to scale, that should be noted. . Longitude and Latiude, also not required for Joe's, but desireable for surveyors and even helpful with modern GPS systems. . An Index Grid for ease of navigation. and . A Symbols translator, showing highway markers, church, cemetery, etc. Information Necessary for Every Map Title Direction Scale Legend Author/creator labels date of creation sources of information border fringing (around water) ( Full Answer )
It should be simple. . It should be clear with no ambiguity. . It should lead unique solution of the problem. . It should involve finite number of steps. . It should have the capability to handle some unexpected situations which may arise during the solution of a problem(for eg: Division with ze…ro). ( Full Answer )
1.) the alignment with Freud's. discoveries of the primacy. of the unconscious. 2.) a radical questioning of the. process of representation. 3.) the problematic status of the author. and his authority-the author. appears in the text. 4.) the artist as dandy or. anti-commercial radical. 5.)… the "new metropolitan cities",. "transnational capitals",. the "City of Strangers". 6.) art made by the restlessly mobile. emigrÃ© or exile. 7.) the non-natural status of language ( Full Answer )
Symbols to represent instructions Each instruction (opcode) is given some mnemonic name Various addressing modes might select different opcodes for same mnemonic Symbols to represent labels and variables The addresses where variables are stored can be named Addresses in the code can be labelled
according to other sources available on the net and in books, they are Internal reporting systems, Marketing research systems, Marketing intelligence systems, and Marketing models.
the features of V B is we are creating a programme and it is run in similar window ..... this software powered by a great sintest of amaroka .............and this is
Justice ,equality,social,secular,integrity, faternity, sovernity,democratic, republic,fedaralism , integrated judicary, bicameralism these are the basic feature of indian constitution.
All maps have some basic features that include a legend that showshow roads, highways, and other items are marked on the map. Otherfeatures may include a title, scale, orientation, and an indexgrid.
The basic features of civilization include social classes and acomplex government. Public works, religion, a writing system, jobspecialization, and architecture are other basic feature ofcivilization.
The basic features of the Indian economy are the things that definethe economy of India. They include low per capita income, heavypopulation pressure, pre-dominance of agriculture, unemployment,and low rate of capital formation.
The C programming model is that the programmer knows exactly what they want to do and how to use the language constructs to achieve that goal. The language lets the expert programmer express what they want in the minimum time by staying out of their .
The most common features were the principles of popularsovereignty, limited government, civil rights and liberties, andseparation of powers/checks and balances.
I'll top that and give you six. 1. Owning private property is one of the most basic features of the free enterprise system. 2. Individuals and businesses in the United States (US) are free to enter into contracts. Whether written or oral, contracts are legally binding agreements to buy and sell go…ods. 3. Individuals in the US are free to make personal choices and communicate those choices through the price system. As shoppers, consumers cast "dollar votes" which help producers determine what products to buy. 4. Individuals in the us are free to engage in free enterprise and competition. That is, they are free to choose where they will work, to open their own business, if they so desire, and to choose the type and quantity of goods or services they will produce. 5. According to famous economist, Adam Smith, self-interest is the force that directs the actions of individuals and businesses. In the US, individuals are free to look after their own self-interest. 6. The American economic system is relatively free from government interference. Hope this helps. ----Shawn ( Full Answer )
People if ur reading this answer it's probably wrong so, if u know the actual answer please make sure to answer it thank u
The basic features are Resistance Voltage and/or belive it or not current. Comment Actually, a circuit can exist without a voltage or a current!
. The following are the chief features of socialism: 1. Common ownership: Socialism implies social ownership/state ownership of means of production. Common ownership means that the entire structure of production and all natural resources be held in common by all people. This means that every… person will stand in equal relationship with every other person with respect to the means of producing the things we need to live, that is, mines, industrial plants, manufacturing units, all land and farms, and all means of transport and distribution. This also means the common ownership of all natural resources. 2. It implies equality of incomes and equality. 3. Economic planning is an essential features of socialism. 4. Social welfare and social security. 5. Classless society: Class is a social relationship that invades and has a corrupting influence on every part of our lives. In socialism, social relationships of common ownership and equality will end class divisions. 6. Lack of incentive. ( Full Answer )
\nThe basic roles are that there has to be a colletion of people at least one hundred that have combined thought on religion and they have a system to hunting and farming which enables them to do other jobs , go to http://bussinessmouse.googlepages.com
The very basic feature of web browsers is the ability to decode the source code of pages and navigate trough pages using the user's commands. Basically, all web browsers have back and forward buttons, an address bar and bookmarks system.
Each telecommunication network is made up of five basic featuresand components. They are, terminals, telecommunications processors,channels, computers and telecommunications control software.
1. Greater emphasis on helping every learner to become successful reader. 2. Emphasis on interactive/collaborative learning approaches 3. Emphasis on the use of integrative learning approaches 4. Teaching of values in all learning areas 5. Development of self-reliant and patriotic citizens 6. …Development of creative and critical thinking skills ( Full Answer )
Though it may have an associated culture and one or more associatedlanguages, the traditional definition of Judaism is the observance of the Torah, which is why dictionaries defineJudaism as "the religion of Moses." In this sense, the word "Torah"is meant in its wider meaning, which includes the T…anakh, theTalmud, and other classical Jewish texts. The philosophy of Judaism is that this world is a purposefulcreation by God, in which all people are tested concerning theiruse of free-will. We possess a soul which lives on after the bodydies and is held responsible for the person's actions. Anyone whois worthy, Jewish or not, can merit reward in the afterlife. Some examples of the commands: Belief in God Putting on Tefillin (phylacteries) in the morning The sukkah-booth during Sukkot Avoiding leavened products in Passover Keeping kosher Not eating on Yom Kippur Not working on the Shabbat Paying workers on time Marital rights for one's wife The Ten Commandments Helping someone who is in danger Counting the days of the Omer Returning lost objects when feasible Wearing the tzitzith-garment Affixing a mezuzah to the door Learning Torah Marrying and having children Educating one's children in Judaism Giving tzedakah (charity) Honoring one's parents And many more. The laws have various reasons. Some (such as the Passover) serve toreenact or remember events of our history. Some (such as saying the Shema-prayer) serve to reiterate ourbelief in God. Some of the laws (such as those of ritual purity and kosher food)serve to sanctify us. Some (such as the laws of torts) serve to maintain an orderly andjust society. Some (such as the law against breaking a vow) serve to prevent badcharacter traits. Some (such as the command to offer help) serve to engender goodcharacter traits. And all of the commands serve to subjugate us to God's will(especially those commands for which no explanation is easilyapparent). Note that the Torah "as is" isn't exactly what Judaism observes.Rather, It's the Torah together with the details provided in theTalmud, which is the Oral Law that was handed down together withthe laws of Moses. Otherwise, the verses of the Torah often lackenough detail to be fulfilled as is. ( Full Answer )
The major, rather, fundamental belief is the existence of SUPREME FORCE that created and Provides for the creatures. That is belief in the ONENESS of Almighty God. He is to be worshiped because He decides our destiny. The there is the belief in Angels who carry out the Commands of Almighty God. God …must judge us on the Day of Judgement. Then we have to have belief in Prophet-hood and holy Books. Being kind, helpful, loving, caring and just are also the main features of belief systems. Search for Truth and Reality is also common among belief systems. ( Full Answer )
The free-market system has many advantages but there are also some drawbacks Which of the following is a negative feature of a free market economy?
Economic development is unpredictable and goes up and down. . Economic development is unpredictable and goes up and down.
They show roads and McDonalds signs. At least the ones I own, they have all big yellow Ms scattered around.
Important Features of Visual Basic (VB) . Full set of objects - you 'draw' the application . Lots of icons and pictures for your use . Response to mouse and keyboard actions . Clipboard and printer access . Full array of mathematical, string handling, and graphics functions . Can handle fixed… and dynamic variable and control arrays . Sequential and random access file support . Useful debugger and error-handling facilities . Powerful database access tools . ActiveX support . Package & Deployment Wizard makes distributing your applications simple ( Full Answer )
Five basic principles found in a free interprise system are; legal equqlity, private property rights, free contract, voluntary exchange and competition.
Drama is a display of emotions, a representation ofrelationships and the portrayal of the different phases of humanlife. It sketches different personalities and represents a widevariety of emotions through the different characters it portrays.Which of its components are identified as the elements o…f drama?Let us see. Theme : The theme of a drama refers to the central idea ofthe play. It can either be clearly stated through dialogue oraction or can be inferred after watching the entire performance. Plot : The order of events occurring in a play is referred toas the plot of the drama. It is the basic storyline that isnarrated through a play. The entertainment one derives from a playdepends largely on the sequence of events that occur in the story.The logical connection between the events and the characters, whichenact the story form an integral part of the plot of drama. Characters : The characters that form a part of the story areinterwoven with the plot of the drama. Each character in a play hasa personality of its own and has a distinct set of principles andbeliefs. Actors who play various roles in a drama have the veryimportant responsibility of bringing the characters to life. Dialogue : The story of any play is taken forward by means ofthe dialogue. The story is narrated to the audiences through thedialogue written by the playwright. The success of a drama dependshugely on the contents of the dialogue and the quality of dialoguedelivery by the actors of the play. Music : This element of drama comprises of the melody in theuse of sounds and rhythm in dialogues as well as melodiouscompositions, which form a part of many plays. The backgroundscore, the songs and the sound effects that are used in a play makeup the musical element of drama. Music composers and lyricists sittogether to create music that can go well with the theme of theplay. If the scenes of a play are accompanied by well-suited piecesof music, they become more effective on the audiences. Hence, musicforms a very important element of drama. Visual Element : While the dialogue and music constitute theaudible aspect of drama, the visual element deals with the scenes,costumes and special effects used in it. The visual element ofdrama, also known as the spectacle, renders a visual appeal to it.The costumes worn by the artists must suit the characters they areplaying. Besides, it is important for the scenes to be dramaticenough to hold the audiences to their seats. The special effectsused in a play add to the visual appeal. Thus, the spectacle formsan essential component of drama. The structure of the story comprises of the way in which the storyis put forth to the audience. The way in which the characters playtheir roles and the framework of the story constitute the dramastructure. Direction is an essential constituent of a play. Awell-directed story can help in fetching greater mass appeal.Stagecraft plays a vital role in increasing the visual appeal of adrama. The use and organization of different stage properties andthe stage setup constitute the stagecraft, which is an essentialcomponent of a play. The use of symbols implies the use of indirect suggestions in adrama. Logically used symbols help in making a scene moreeffective. The use of contrast is about using stillness followed byactivity or silence followed by noise. It can also mean the use ofcontrasting colors to add to the visual appeal. It can mean theclever use of contrasting scenes following each other that enhancethe dramatic element of a play. An enthusiastic audience is perhaps one of the very essentialelements of drama. A play needs a live and lively audience who canconstructively criticize performances and generously appreciatequality work. More information can be found below. Elements of Drama Character Most simply a character is one of the persons who appears in theplay, one of the dramatis personae (literally, the persons of theplay). In another sense of the term, the treatment of the characteris the basic part of the playwright's work. Conventions of theperiod and the author's personal vision will affect the treatmentof character. Most plays contain major characters and minor characters. Thedelineation and development of major characters is essential to theplay; the conflict between Hamlet and Claudius depends upon thecharacter of each. A minor character like Marcellus serves aspecific function, to inform Hamlet of the appearance of hisfather's ghost. Once, that is done, he can depart in peace, for weneed not know what sort of person he is or what happens to him. Thedistinction between major and minor characters is one of degree, asthe character of Horatio might illustrate. The distinction between heroes (or heroines) and villains,between good guys and bad guys, between virtue and vice is usefulin dealing with certain types of plays, but in many modern plays(and some not so modern) it is difficult to make. Is Gregers Werlein The Wild Duck, for example, a hero or a villain? Another common term in drama is protagonist. Etymologically, itmeans the first contestant. In the Greek drama, where the termarose, all the parts were played by one, two, or three actors (themore actors, the later the play), and the best actor, who got theprincipal part(s), was the protagonist. The second best actor wascalled the euteragonist. Ideally, the term "protagonist" should beused only for the principal character. Several other characters canbe defined by their relation to the protagonist. The antagonist ishis principal rival in the conflict set forth in the play. A foilis a character who defines certain characteristics in theprotagonist by exhibiting opposite traits or the same traits in agreater or lesser degree. A confidant(e) provides a ready ear towhich the protagonist can address certain remarks which should beheard by the audience but not by the other characters. In Hamlet,for example, Hamlet is the protagonist, Claudius the antagonist,Laertes and Fortinbras foils (observe the way in which each goesabout avenging the death or loss of property of his father), andHoratio the confidant. Certain writers-- for example, Moliere and Pirandello--use acharacter type called the raisonneur, whose comments express thevoice of reason and also, presumably, of the author. Philinte andthe Father are examples of the raisonneur. Another type of character is the stereotype or stock character,a character who reappears in various forms in many plays. Comedy isparticularly a fruitful source of such figures, including the milesgloriosus or boastful soldier (a man who claims great valor butproves to be a coward when tested), the irascible old man (thesource of elements in the character of Polonius), the wittyservant, the coquette, the prude, the fop, and others. A stockcharacter from another genre is the revenger of Renaissancetragedy. The role of Hamlet demonstrates how such a stereotype ismodified by an author to create a great role, combining the stockelements with individual ones. Sometimes group of actors work together over a long period inrelatively stable companies. In such a situation, individualmembers of the group develop expertise in roles of a certain type,such as leading man and leading lady (those who play the principalparts), juveniles or ingÃÂ©nues of both sexes (those who specializeas young people), character actors (those who perform mature oreccentric types), and heavies or villains. The commedia dell'arte, a popular form of the late Middle Agesand early Renaissance, employed actors who had standard lines ofbusiness and improvised the particular action in terms of theirestablished characters and a sketchy outline of a plot. Frequently,Pantalone, an older man, generally a physician, was married to ayoung woman named Columbine. Her lover, Harlequin, was not onlyyounger and more handsome than her husband but also more vigoroussexually. Pantalone's servants, Brighella, Truffaldino, and others,were employed in frustrating or assisting either the lovers intheir meetings or the husband in discovering them. A group of actors who function as a unit, called a chorus, was acharacteristic feature of the Greek tragedy. The members of thechorus shared a common identity, such as Asian Bacchantes or oldmen of Thebes. The choragos (leader of the chorus) sometimes spokeand acted separately. In some of the plays, the chorus participateddirectly in the action; in others they were restricted in observingthe action and commenting on it. The chorus also separated theindividual sins by singing and dancing choral odes, though justwhat the singing and dancing were like is uncertain. The odes werein strict metrical patterns; sometimes they were direct comments onthe action and characters, and at other times they were moregeneral statements and judgments. A chorus in Greek fashion is notcommon in later plays, although there are instances such as T.S.Eliot's Murder in the Cathedral, in which the Women of Canterburyserve as a chorus. On occasion a single actor may perform the function of a chorus,as do the aptly named Chorus in Shakespeare's Henry V and the StageManager in Thornton Wilder's Our Town. Alfieri in the View from theBridge functions both as a chorus and a minor character in theaction of the play. Plot The interest generated by the plot varies for different kinds ofplays. (See fiction elements on plot for more information regardingplot.) The plot is usually structured with acts and scenes. Open conflict plays: rely on the suspense of a struggle in whichthe hero, through perhaps fight against all odds, is not doomed.Dramatic thesis: foreshadowing, in the form of ominous hints orsymbolic incidents, conditions the audience to expect certainlogical developments. Coincidence: sudden reversal of fortune playsdepict climatic ironies or misunderstandings. Dramatic irony: thefulfillment of a plan, action, or expectation in a surprising way,often opposite of what was intended. Theme The plot has been called the body of a play and the theme hasbeen called its soul. Most plays have a conflict of some kindbetween individuals, between man and society, man and some superiorforce or man and himself. The events that this conflict provokesmake up the plot. One of the first items of interest is theplaywright's treatment of the plot and what them he would draw fromit. The same plots have been and will be used many times; it is thetreatment that supplies each effort with originality or artisticworth. Shakespeare is said to have borrowed all but one of hisstories, but he presented them so much better than any of theprevious authors that he is not seriously criticized for theborrowing. Th e treatment of theme is equally varied. The same theme or story may be given a very serious or a verylight touch. It may be a severe indictment or a tongue-in- cheekattack. It could point up a great lesson or show the same situationas a handicap to progress. The personality, background an d socialor artistic temperament of the playwright are responsible for thetreatment that he gives to his story or theme. We must, therefore,both understand and evaluate these factors. To endure, a play should have a theme. It is sometimes suggestedin the title as in Loyalties, Justice, or Strife, You can't Take ItWith You, or The Physician in Spite of Himself. At other times itis found in the play itself, as in Craig's Wife when the aunt saysto Mrs. Craig, "People who live to themselves are often left tothemselves." Sometimes theme is less obvious, necessitating closerstudy. If a play has a theme, we should be able to state it in generalterms and in a single sentence, even at the risk ofoversimplification. The theme of Hamlet is usually stated as thefailure of a youth of poetic temperament to cope with circumstancesthat demand action. The theme of Macbeth is that too much ambitionleads to destruction; a Streetcar Named Desire, that he who striveshardest to find happiness oftentimes finds the least; and of Greenpastures, that even God must change with the universe. Of course the theme, no matter how fully stated, is not theequivalent of the play. The play is a complex experience, and onemust remain open to its manifold suggestions. As indicated above, the statement of the play in specific termsis the plot presented. Plot and theme should go hand in hand. Ifthe theme is one of nobility, or dignity, the plot must concernevents and characters that measure up to that theme. As we analyzemany plays, we find that some posses an excellent theme, but aresupported by an inconsequential plot. One famous play of thisnature, Abie's Irish Rose, held the stage for many years. The themesaid: Difference of religion need not hinder a happy marriage. Theplot was so thin and both characters and situation so stereotyped,that justice was not done to the theme. This weakness was mostobvious in the play's revival after twenty years. Examples of the frequent fault of superior plot and little or notheme come to us in much of the work of our current playwrights.Known for their cleverness in phrasing and timing, and theiroriginal extremely witty conceptions, these plays are often ver ysuccessful. More often than not, however, they are utterly lackingin a theme or truth that will withstand more than momentaryanalysis. They are delightful but ephemeral. An audience believesthem only while watching in the theatre. Consequently, the author,although now among our most popular, will not endure as artists,nor are their plays likely to be revived a hundred years hence.They but emphasize more strongly the axiom that a good plot orconflict is needed for transitory success, but a great theme ismore likely to assure a play a long life. Dialogue Dialogue provides the substance of a play. Each word uttered bythe character furthers the business of the play, contributes to itseffect as a whole. Therefore, a sense of DECORUM must beestablished by the characters, ie., what is said is appropriate tothe role and situation of a character. Also the exposition of theplay often falls on the dialogue of the characters. Rememberexposition establishes the relationships, tensions or conflictsfrom which later plot developments derive. Any artificial picture of life must start from the detail ofactuality. An audience must be able to recognize it; howeverchanged; we want to check it against experience. Death for example, is something we cannot know. In every man it is represented asan embodying some of our feelings about it. So Death is partlyhumanized, enough, anyway, for us to be able to explore what thedramatist thinks about it. Conversely, the detail of actuality in realistic drama can bechosen and presented in such a way as to suggest that it stands formore on the stage than it would in life. The Cherry Orchard family,in the excitement of their departure, overlook s their old servantFirs. Placed with striking force at the end of the play, thistrivial accident becomes an incisive and major comment oneverything the family has done. So it is dramatic speech. A snatch of phase caught in everydayconversation may mean little, Used by an actor on a stage, it canassume general and typical qualities. The context into which it isput can make it pull more than its conversation al weight, nomatter how simple words. Consider Othello\rquote s bare repetition:'Put out the light, end then put out the light.' In its context therepetition prefigures precisely the comparison Shakespeare is aboutto make between the lam Othello is holding and Desdemona's life andbeing. Its heavy rhythm suggests the strained tone and obsessedmood of the man, and an almost priestlike attitude behind the twinmotions. We begin to see the murder of Desdemona in the largergeneral terms of a ritualistic sacrifice. Poetry is made of words,which can be in use in more prosaic ways; dramatic speech, with itsbasis in ordinary co nversation, is speech that has had a specificpressure put on it. Why do words begin to assume general qualities, and why do theybecome dramatic? Here are two problems on either side of the samecoin. The words in both cases depend upon the kind of attention wegive them. The artist using them, whether aut hor or actors, forcethem upon us, and in a variety of ways try to fix the quality ofour attention. If dialogue carefully follows the way we speak in life, as it islikely to go i n a naturalistic play, the first step towardsunderstanding how it departs from actuality can be awkward. It ishelpful to cease to submit the pretence for the moment. An apparentreproduction of ordinary conversation will be, in good drama, aconstructio n of word setup to do many jobs that are notimmediately obvious. Professor Erick Bently has written of Ibsen's'opaque, uninviting sentences' : An ibsenite sentence often performs four or five function atonce. It shed light on the character spo ken about, it furthers theplot; it functions ironically is conveying to the audience ameaning different from that conveyed to the characters. It is true that conversation itself can sometimes be taken to dothis thing. 'Whatever you think. I'm going to tell him what yousaid.' is a remark which in its context can shed light on thespeaker, the person spoken to and the spoken about. For a fourthperson listening, as spectator witnesses a play, there may also bean element of that mean something only to himself as observer. Inthe play the difference lies first in an insistence that the wordsgo somewhere, move towards a predetermined end. It lies in a chargeof meaning that will advance the action. This is argued in a statement in Strindberg's manifesto for thenaturalistic theatre. He says of his characters that he has'permitted he minds to work irregularly as they do in reality,where, during conversation, the cogs of mind seem more or lesshaphazardly to engage those of another one, an where no topic isfully exhausted.' But he adds that. While the dialogue seems tostray a good deal in the opening scenes, \lquote it acquires amaterial that later on is worked over, picked up again repeated,expounded, and built up the theme in a musical composition.' It is a question of economy. The desultory and clumsy talk ofreal life, with its interruptions, overlapping, in decisions andrepetitions, talk without direction, wastes our interest\emdashunless, like the chatter given to Jane Austen\rquote s Miss Bates,it hides relevance in irrelevance. It follows the dialogue whichthe wit and vitality in Shaw's dialogue yet ignore the question ofits relevance to the action. When the actor examines the text to prepare his part, he looksfor what makes the words different from conversation, that is helooks for the structural elements of the building, for links ofcharacteristic thought in the character, and so on . He persiststill he has shaped in his mind a firm and workable pattern of hispart. Now the clues sought by the actor hidden beneath the surfaceof the dialogue are the playgoer's guides too. The actor andproducer Stanislavsky have called these clues the 'subtext' of aplay. The subtext is a web of innumerable, varied inner patternsinside a play and a part, woven from 'magic ifs' , givencircumstances, all sorts of figments of the imagination, innermovements, objects of attention, smaller and greater truths and abelief in them, adaptations, adjustmen ts and other similarelements. It is subtext that makes us say the words we do in aplay. And in another place he says that 'the whole text of the playwill be accompanied by a sub textual stream of images, like amoving picture constantly thrown on the screen of our inner vision,to guide us as we speak and act on the stage.' Once we admit thatthe words must propose and substantiate the play\rquote s meaning,we shall find in them more and more of the author's wishes. For dramat ic dialogue has other work to do before it provides atable of words to be spoken. In the absence of the author it mustprovide a set of unwritten working directives to the actor on howto speak its speeches. And before that, it has to teach him how tothink and feel them: the particularly of a play requires this if isnot to be animated by a series of cardboard stereotypes. Dramatic dialogue works by a number of instinctively agreedcodes. Some tell the producer how to arrange the figures on thestage. Others tell him what he should hear as the pattern of soundechoing and contradicting, changing tone, rising and falling. Theseare directives strongly compelling him to hear the key in which ascene should be played, and the tone and temp of the melody. Othersoblige him to start particular rhythmic movements of emotionflowing between the stage and the audience. He is th en left tomarry the colour and shape of the stage picture with the music hefinds recorded in the text. Good dialogue works like this and throws out a 'substextualstream of images'; Even if the limits within which these effectswork are narrow, even if the effect lies in the barest or simplestof speeches, we may expect to hear the text humming the tune as itcannot in real life. Dialogue should be read and heard as adramatic score. Convention The means the playwright employs are determined at least in partby dramatic convention. Greek: Playwrights of this era often workedwith familiar story material, legend about gods and famous familiesthat the audience was familiar with. Since the audience wasfamiliar with certain aspects of these, the playwrights usedallusion rather than explicit exposition. In representing action,they often relied on messengers to report off-stage action. Forinterpretation the Greeks relied on the CHORUS, a body ofonlookers, usually citizens or elders, whose comments on the playreflected reactions common to the community. These plays werewritten in metered verse arranged in elaborate stanzas. Thisrequired intense attention from the audience. English Drama: Minorchara cters play an important role in providing information andguiding interpretation. The confidant, a friend or servant, listensto the complaints, plans and reminiscences of a major character.Minor characters casually comment among themselves on majorcharacters and plot development. Extended SOLILOQUY enables a majorcharacter to reveal his thoughts in much greater detail than innatural dialogue. ASIDES, remarks made to the audience but notheard by those on the stage, are common. Realism: Toward the end ofthe nineteenth century, realistic depiction of everyday lifeentered the genre of drama, whereas the characters may beunconventional and their thoughts turbulent and fantasy-ridden.Contemporary: Experimentation seems to be the key word here. ANARRATOR replaces the messenger, the chorus and the confidant.FLASHBACKS often substitute for narration. Many contemporaryplaywrights have abandoned recognizable setting, chronologicalsequence and characterization through dialogue. Genre Genre is a term that describes works of literature according totheir shared thematic or structural characteristics. The attempt toclassify literature in this way was initiated by Aristotle in thePoetics, where he distinguishes tragedy, epic, and comedy andrecognizes even more fundamental distinctions between drama, epic,and lyric poetry. Classical genre theory, established by Aristotleand reinforced by Horace, is regulative and prescriptive,attempting to maintain rigid boundaries that correspond to socialdifferences. Thus, tragedy and epic are concerned exclusively withthe affairs of the nobility, comedy with the middle or lowerclasses. Modern literary criticism, on the other hand, does not regardgenres as dogmatic categories, but rather as aesthetic conventionsthat guide, but are also led by, writers. The unstable nature ofgenres does not reduce their effectiveness as tools of criticalinquiry, which attempts to discover universal attributes amongindividual works, and has, since classical times, evolved theoriesof the novel, ode, elegy, pastoral, satire, and many other kinds ofwriting. Audience It is the act or chance of hearing; a reception by a greatperson; the person to hear. Playhouse, script, actors, mise en scene, audience areinseparable parts of the theatre. The concept of drama put forwardin this book insists that the audience have an indispensable roleto play. While Stanislavsky is right in saying that 'spectator cometo the theatre to hear the subtext. They can read the text at home;he is speaking as a man of the nineteenth century. We do not go tothe play merely to have the text interpreted and explained by theskills of the director and his actor. We do not go as in a learningsituation, but to share in a partnership without which the playerscannot work. In his Reflaxions sur l; art, valery believed that acreator is one who makes other create': in art both the artist andthe spectator actively cooperate, and the value of the work isdependent on this reciprocity. If in the theatre there is nointeraction between stage and audience, the play is dead, bad ornon-existent: the audience, like the customer, is always right. Every man, women, or child who has expressed an opinionconcerning a dramatic performance has, in a sense, proclaim himselfto be a critic. Whether his reaction has been good or bad, hisopinion will have some effect on the thinking of those who haveheard or read his comment, and what have been said will become apart of the production's history. The statement may have beeninadvertent, biased, unfair, without thought or foundation, butonce spoken or repeated, it cease to be just an opinion and isaccepted as a fact. Who has not heard, accepted, repeated, and beenaffected by such generalization as: "They say its terrible!" or "They say its terrific!" Another type of critic is the more powerful and frequently onlyslightly more qualified, individual who is-often for strange andirrelevant reasons-assigned to cover an opening for the school orcommunity paper. He may be completely lacking in the knowledgerequired of even a beginner in dramatic criticisms, but, again,"Anyone can write up a play." Yet the power of the written wordstakes over, and what this novice write becomes the acceptedauthority for many. The hundreds of hour of work by the manypersons involved in the production, their personal sacrifices, andtheir pride in their work-to say nothing of the financial outlayinvolved-far too often are condemned or praised for the wrongreasons or for logical reason at all. As a further injustice, whatthe critic has written, although it is just a single opinion,becomes the only record of the production and so catalogs the eventof the future. It is doubtful if any other business or art is so much a victimof inept, untrained, illogical, and undeserved criticism as is adramatic performance. Whether the remarks have grown out ofprejudice, meager knowledge of the theatre, lack of understandingor sensitivity, momentary admiration or dislike foe some individualparticipant, a poor dinner or disposition, an auditorium too hot ortoo cold, or any of a hundred incidents that could occurred duringthe production itself does not matter. Those whose effort are beingdiscussed can console themselves only with the fact thatcriticism-good or bad-is much easier than creation or craftsmanshipfor the same reason that the work is harder than talk. Having been a part of the theatre-professional, community, andeducational-for more than four decades, we are well aware thatcriticism of the critics is frequently heard, and that thiscriticism includes those who write the drama section for thenational magazine or the large daily newspaper report on theopening night. This is inevitable, for total agreement on any phaseof the theatre is impossible. We live in a world with out laws oflogic or mathematical formulas to guide us. There are no yardsticksthat will give us all the same answer, but there are yardsticksthat should be familiar to all of us. In this paper we propose topresent and to discuss some of these criteria. If the amateurcritics just referred to had been familiar with some basic dramaticprinciples and had used them honestly, there would be a greaterfeeling that justice had been done. Any intelligent theatre personknows that each member of the audience views what is before himwith different eyes and so sees something different from hisneighbor. How each member reacts will be determined by education,age, experience, nationality, maturity, background, temperament,heredity, environment, the rest of the audience, the weather, whathe has done or eaten in the past few hours, or his plans for afterthe performance. This list of imponderable could go indefinitely.Furthermore, if agreement on any one aspect of a given performanceis impossible, then agreement is even more hopeless if differentperformances of the same play, in the same theatre, and with thesame cast, are under discussion; for a different audience makes fora different production. Stagecraft The stage creates its effects in spite of, and in part becauseof, definite physical limitations. Setting and action tend to besuggestive rather than panoramic or colossal. Both setting andaction may be little more than hints for the spectator to fillout. Design Theater can also be discussed in terms of the type of space inwhich it is produced. Stages and auditoriums have had distinctiveforms in every era and in different cultures. New theaters todaytend to be flexible and eclectic in design, incorporating elementsof several styles; they are known as multiple-use or multiple-formtheaters. A performance, however, need not occur in anarchitectural structure designed as a theater, or even in abuilding. The English director Peter Brook talks of creatingtheater in an "empty space." Many earlier forms of theater wereperformed in the streets, open spaces, market squares, churches, orrooms or buildings not intended for use as theaters. Muchcontemporary experimental theater rejects the formal constraints ofavailable theaters and seeks more unusual spaces. In all these"found" theaters, the sense of stage and auditorium is created bythe actions of the performers and the natural features of thespace. Throughout history, however, most theaters have employed oneof three types of stage: end, thrust, and arena. An end stage is araised platform facing the assembled audience. Frequently, it isplaced at one end of a rectangular space. The simplest version ofthe end stage is the booth or trestle stage, a raised stage with acurtained backdrop and perhaps an awning. This was the stage of theGreek and Roman mimes, the mountebanks and wandering entertainersof the Middle Ages, commedia dell'arte, and popular entertainersinto the 20th century. It probably formed the basis of Greek tragictheater and Elizabethan theater as well. The ProsceniumTheater Since the Renaissance, Western theater has beendominated by an end stage variant called the proscenium theater.The proscenium is the wall separating the stage from theauditorium. The proscenium arch, which may take several shapes, isthe opening in that wall through which the audience views theperformance. A curtain that either rises or opens to the sides mayhang in this space. The proscenium developed in response to thedesire to mask scenery, hide scene-changing machinery, and createan offstage space for performers' exits and entrances. The resultis to enhance illusion by eliminating all that is not part of thescene and to encourage the audience to imagine that what theycannot see is a continuation of what they can see. Because theproscenium is (or appears to be) an architectural barrier, itcreates a sense of distance or separation between the stage and thespectators. The proscenium arch also frames the stage andconsequently is often called a peep-show or picture-framestage. The Thrust Stage A thrust stage, sometimes knownas three-quarter round, is a platform surrounded on three sides bythe audience. This form was used for ancient Greek theater,Elizabethan theater, classical Spanish theater, English Restorationtheater, Japanese and Chinese classical theater, and much ofWestern theater in the 20th century. A thrust may be backed by awall or be appended to some sort of end stage. The upstage end(back of the stage, farthest from the audience) may have sceneryand provisions for entrances and exits, but the thrust itself isusually bare except for a few scenic elements and props. Because nobarrier exists between performers and spectators, the thrust stagegenerally creates a sense of greater intimacy, as if theperformance were occurring in the midst of the auditorium, whilestill allowing for illusionistic effects through the use of theupstage end and adjacent offstage space. The ArenaStage The arena stage, or theater-in-the-round, is aperforming space totally surrounded by the auditorium. Thisarrangement has been tried several times in the 20th century, butits historical precedents are largely in nondramatic forms such asthe circus, and it has limited popularity. The necessity ofproviding equal sight lines for all spectators puts specialconstraints on the type of scenery used and on the movements of theactors, because at any given time part of the audience willinevitably be viewing a performer's back. Illusion is moredifficult to sustain in arena, since in most setups, entrances andexits must be made in full view of the audience, eliminatingsurprise, if nothing else. Nonetheless, arena, when properly used,can create a sense of intimacy not often possible with other stagearrangements, and, as noted, it is well suited to many nondramaticforms. Furthermore, because of the different scenic demands ofarena theater, the large backstage areas associated withprosceniums can be eliminated, thus allowing a more economical useof space. Variant Forms One variant form of staging isenvironmental theater, which has precedents in medieval and folktheater and has been widely used in 20th-century avant-gardetheater. It eliminates the single or central stage in favor ofsurrounding the spectators or sharing the space with them. Stagespace and spectator space become indistinguishable. Another popularalternative is the free, or flexible, space, sometimes called ablack-box theater because of its most common shape and color. Thisis an empty space with movable seating units and stage platformsthat can be arranged in any configuration for eachperformance. The Fixed Architectural Stage Most stagesare raw spaces that the designer can mold to create any desiredeffect or location; in contrast, the architectural stage haspermanent features that create a more formal scenic effect.Typically, ramps, stairs, platforms, archways, and pillars arepermanently built into the stage space. Variety in individualsettings may be achieved by adding scenic elements. The StratfordFestival Theater in Stratford, Ontario, for example, has apermanent "inner stage"-a platform roughly 3.6 m (12 ft)high-jutting onto the multilevel thrust stage from the upstagewall. Most permanent theaters through the Renaissance, such as theTeatro Olimpico (1580) in Vicenza, Italy, did not use painted orbuilt scenery but relied on similar permanent architecturalfeatures that could provide the necessary scenic elements. The Noand kabuki stages in Japan are otherexamples. Auditoriums Auditoriums in the 20th centuryare mostly variants on the fan-shaped auditorium built (1876) bythe composer Richard Wagner at his famous opera house in Bayreuth,Germany. These auditoriums are shaped like a hand-held fan and areusually raked (inclined upward from front to back), with staggeredseats to provide unobstructed sight lines. Such auditoriums may bedesigned with balconies, and some theaters, such as opera houses,have boxes-seats in open or partitioned sections along thesidewalls of the auditorium-a carry-over from baroque theaterarchitecture. Set Design In Europe, one person,frequently called a scenographer, designs sets, costumes, andlights; in the U.S. these functions are usually handled by threeseparate professionals. Set design is the arrangement of theatricalspace; the set, or setting, is the visual environment in which aplay is performed. Its purpose is to suggest time and place and tocreate the proper mood or atmosphere. Settings can generally beclassified as realistic, abstract, suggestive, orfunctional. Stage Facilities The use and movement ofscenery are determined by stage facilities. Relatively standardelements include trapdoors in the stage floor, elevators that canraise or lower stage sections, wagons (rolling platforms) on whichscenes may be mounted, and cycloramas-curved canvas or plasterbackdrops used as a projection surface or to simulate the sky.Above the stage, especially in a proscenium theater, is the areaknown as the fly gallery, where lines for flying-that is,raising-unused scenery from the stage are manipulated, and whichcontains counterweight or hydraulic pipes and lengths of wood, orbattens, from which lights and pieces of scenery may be suspended.Other special devices and units can be built as necessary. Althoughscene painting seems to be a dying art, modern scene shops are wellequipped to work with plastics, metals, synthetic fabrics, paper,and other new and industrial products that until recently were notin the realm of theater. Lighting Design Lightingdesign, a more ephemeral art, has two functions: to illuminate thestage and the performers and to create mood and control the focusof the spectators. Stage lighting may be from a direct source suchas the sun or a lamp, or it may be indirect, employing reflectedlight or general illumination. It has four controllable properties:intensity, color, placement on the stage, and movement-the visiblechanging of the first three properties. These properties are usedto achieve visibility, mood, composition (the overall arrangementof light, shadow, and color), and the revelation of form-theappearance of shape and dimensionality of a performer or object asdetermined by light. Until the Renaissance, almost allperformance was outdoors and therefore lit by the sun, but withindoor performance came the need for lighting instruments. Lightingwas first achieved with candles and oil lamps and, in the 19thcentury, with gas lamps. Although colored filters, reflectors, andmechanical dimming devices were used for effects, lighting servedprimarily to illuminate the stage. By current standards the stagewas fairly dim, which allowed greater illusionism in scenicpainting. Gas lighting facilitated greater control, but only theadvent of electric lighting in the late 19th century permitted thebrightness and control presently available. It also allowed thedimming of the house-lights, plunging the auditorium into darknessfor the first time. Lighting design, however, is not simplyaiming the lighting instruments at the stage or bathing the stagein a general wash of light. Audiences usually expect actors to beeasily visible at all times and to appear to be three-dimensional.This involves the proper angling of instruments, provision of backand side lighting as well as frontal, and a proper balance ofcolors. Two basic types of stage-lighting instruments are employed:floodlights, which illuminate a broad area, and spotlights, whichfocus light more intensely on a smaller area. Instruments consistof a light source and a series of lenses and shutters in some sortof housing. These generally have a power of 500 to 5000 watts. Theinstruments are hung from battens and stanchions in front of, over,and at the sides of the stage. In realistic settings, lights may befocused to simulate the direction of the ostensible source, buteven in these instances, performers would appear two-dimensionalwithout back and side lighting. Because so-called white lightis normally too harsh for most theater purposes, colored filterscalled gels are used to soften the light and create a more pleasingeffect. White light can be simulated by mixing red, blue, and greenlight. Most designers attempt to balance "warm" and "cool" colorsto create proper shadows and textures. Except for special effects,lighting design generally strives to be unobtrusive; just as in setdesign, however, the skillful use of color, intensity, anddistribution can have a subliminal effect on the spectators'perceptions. The lighting designer is often responsible forprojections. These include still or moving images that substitutefor or enhance painted and constructed scenery, create specialeffects such as stars or moonlight, or provide written legends forthe identification of scenes. Images can be projected from theaudience side of the stage onto opaque surfaces, or from the rearof the stage onto specially designed rear-projection screens.Similar projections are often used on scrims, semitransparentcurtains stretched across the stage. Film and still projection,sometimes referred to as mixed media, was first used extensively bythe German director Erwin Piscator in the 1920s and became verypopular in the 1960s. The lights are controlled by a skilledtechnician called the electrician, who operates a control or dimmerboard, so called because a series of "dimmers" controls theintensity of each instrument or group of instruments. The mostrecent development in lighting technology is the memory board, acomputerized control system that stores the information of eachlight cue or change of lights. The electrician need no longeroperate each dimmer individually; by pushing one button, all thelights will change automatically to the preprogrammed intensity andat the desired speed. Costume Design A costume iswhatever is worn on the performer's body. Costume designers areconcerned primarily with clothing and accessories, but are alsooften responsible for wigs, masks, and makeup. Costumes conveyinformation about the character and aid in setting the tone or moodof the production. Because most acting involves impersonation, mostcostuming is actual or re-created historical or contemporary dress;as with scenery, however, costumes may also be suggestive orabstract. Until the 19th century, little attention was paid toperiod or regional accuracy; variations on contemporary dresssufficed. Since then, however, costume designers have paid greatattention to authentic period style. As with the other formsof design, subtle effects can be achieved through choice of color,fabric, cut, texture, and weight or material. Because costume canindicate such things as social class and personality traits, andcan even simulate such physical attributes as obesity or adeformity, an actor's work can be significantly eased by itsskillful design. Costume can also function as character signature,notably for such comic characters as Harlequin or the othercharacters of the commedia dell'arte, Charlie Chaplin's LittleTramp, or circus clowns. In much Oriental theater, as inclassical Greek theater, costume elements are formalized. Basedoriginally on everyday dress, the costumes became standardized andwere appropriated for the stage. Colors, designs, and ornamentationall convey meaningful information. Mask A specialelement of costume is the mask. Although rarely used incontemporary Western theater, masks were essential in Greek andRoman drama and the commedia dell'arte and are used in most Africanand Oriental theater. The masks of tragedy and of comedy, as usedin ancient Greek drama, are in fact the universal symbols of thetheater. Masks obviate the use of the face for expression andcommunication and thus render the performer more puppetlike;expression depends solely on voice and gesture. Because the mask'sexpression is unchanging, the character's fate or final expressionis known from the beginning, thereby removing one aspect ofsuspense. The mask shifts focus from the actor to the character andcan thus clarify aspects of theme and plot and give a character agreater universality. Like costumes, the colors and features of themask, especially in the Orient, indicate symbolically significantaspects of the character. In large theaters masks can also aid invisibility. Makeup Makeup may also function as a mask, especially in Orientaltheater, where faces may be painted with elaborate colors andimages that exaggerate and distort facial features. In Westerntheater, makeup is used for two purposes: to emphasize andreinforce facial features that might otherwise be lost under brightlights or at a distance and to alter signs of age, skin tone, ornose shape. Technical Production The technical aspects of production may be divided intopreproduction and run of production. Preproduction technical workis supervised by the technical director in conjunction with thedesigners. Sets, properties (props), and costumes are made duringthis phase by crews in the theater shops or, in the case of mostcommercial theater, in professional studios. Props are the objects handled by actors or used in dressing thestage-all objects placed or carried on the set that are notcostumes or scenery. Whereas real furniture and hand props can beused in many productions, props for period shows, nonrealisticproductions, and theatrical shows such as circuses must be built.Like sets, props can be illusionistic-they may be created frompapier-mÃÂ¢chÃÂ© or plastic for lightness, exaggerated in size,irregularly shaped, or designed to appear level on a raked stage;they may also be capable of being rolled, collapsed, or folded. Theperson in charge of props is called the props master ormistress. Sound and Sound Effects Sound, if required, is now generally recorded during thepreproduction period. From earliest times, most theatricalperformances were accompanied by music that, until recently, wasproduced by live musicians. Since the 1930s, however, use ofrecorded sound has been a possibility in the theater. Althoughmusic is still the most common sound effect, wind, rain, thunder,and animal noises have been essential since the earliest Greektragedies. Any sound that cannot be created by a performer may beconsidered a sound effect. Such sounds are most often used forrealistic effect (for example, a train rushing by or city soundsoutside a window), but they can also assist in the creation of moodor rhythm. Although many sounds can be recorded from actualsources, certain sounds do not record well and seem false whenplayed through electronic equipment on a stage. Elaboratemechanical devices are therefore constructed to simulate thesesounds, such as rain or thunder. Technicians also create special aural and visual effectssimulating explosions, fire, lightning, and apparitions and givingthe illusion of moving objects or of flying. Conversions Conversions, closely examined, will be found to fall into twoclasses: changes of volition, and changes of sentiment. It was theformer class that Dryden had in mind; and, with reference to thisclass, the principle he indicates remains a sound one. A change ofresolve should never be due to mere lapse of time---to thenecessity for bringing the curtain down and letting the audience gohome. It must always be rendered plausible by some new fact or newmotive; some hitherto untried appeal to reason or emotion. Thisrule, however, is too obvious to require enforcement. It was notquite superfluous so long as the old convention of comedy endured.For a century and a half after Dryden's time, hard-hearted parentswere apt to withdraw their opposition to their children's"felicity" for no better reason than that the fifth act was drawingto a close. But this formula is practically obsolete. Changes ofwill, on the modern stage, are not always adequately motived; butthat is because of individual inexpertness, not because of anyfailure to recognize theoretically the necessity for adequatemotivation. Changes of sentiment are much more important and more difficultto handle. A change of will can always manifest itself in action;but it is very difficult to externalize convincingly a mere changeof heart. When the conclusion of a play hinges (as it frequentlydoes) on a conversion of this nature, it becomes a matter of thefirst moment that it should not merely be asserted but proved. Manya promising play has gone wrong because of the author's neglect, orinability, to comply with this condition. It has often been observed that of all Ibsen's thoroughly matureworks, from A Doll's House to John Gabriel Borkman, The Lady fromthe Sea is the loosest in texture, the least masterly inconstrucion. The fact that it leaves this impression on the mind islargely due, I think, to a single fault. The conclusion of theplay---Ellida's clinging to Wangel and rejection of theStranger---depends entirely on a change in Wangel's mentalattitude, of which we have no proof whatever beyond his bareassertion. Ellida, in her overwrought mood, is evidently incliningto yield to the uncanny allurement of the Stranger's claim uponher, when Wangel, realizing that her sanityis threatened, says: WANGEL: It shall not come to that. There is no other way ofdeliverance for you---at least I see none. Andtherefore---therefore I---cancel our bargain on the spot. Now youcan choose your own path, in full---full freedom. ELLIDA: (Gazes at him awhile, as if speechless): Is thistrue---true---what you say? Do you mean it---from your inmostheart? WANGEL: Yes---from the inmost depths of my tortured heart, Imean it.... Now your own true life can return to its---its rightgroove again. For now you can choose in freedom; and on your ownresponsibility, Ellida. ELLIDA: In freedom---and on my own responsibility?Responsibility? This---this transforms everything. ---and she promptly gives the Stranger his dismissal. Now thisis inevitably felt to be a weak conclusion, because it turnsentirely on a condition of Wangel's mind of which he gives nopositive and convincing evidence. Nothing material is changed byhis change of heart. He could not in any case have restrainedEllida by force; or, if the law gave him the abstract right to doso, he certainly never had the slightest intention of exercisingit. Psychologically, indeed, the incident is acceptable enough. Thesaner part of Ellida's will was always on Wangel's side; and amerely verbal undoing of the "bargain" with which she reproachedherself might quite naturally suffice to turn the scale decisivelyin his favour. But what may suffice for Ellida is not enough forthe audience. Too much is made to hang upon a verbally announcedconversion. The poet ought to have invented some material---or, atthe very least, some impressively symbolic---proof of Wangel'schange of heart. Had he done so, The Lady from the Sea wouldassuredly have taken a higher rank among his works. Let mefurther illustrate my point by comparing a very small thing with avery great. The late Captain Marshall wrote a "farcicalromance" named The Duke of Killiecrankie, in which that nobleman,having been again and again rejected by the Lady Henrietta Addison,kidnapped the obdurate fair one, and imprisoned her in acrag-castle in the Highlands. Having kept her for a week indeferential durance, and shown her that he was not the inefficientnincompoop she had taken him for, he threw open the prison gate,and said to her: "Go! I set you free!" The moment she saw the gateunlocked, and realized that she could indeed go when and where shepleased, she also realized that had the least wish to go, and flungherself into her captor's arms. Here we have Ibsen's situationtransposed into the key of fantasy, and provided with the material"guarantee of good faith" which is lacking in The Lady from theSea. The Duke's change of mind, his will to set the Lady Henriettafree, is visibly demonstrated by the actual opening of the prisongate, so that we believe in it, and believe that she believes init. The play was a trivial affair, and is deservedly forgotten; butthe situation was effective because it obeyed the law that a changeof will or of feeling, occurring at a crucial point in a dramaticaction, must be certified by some external evidence, on pain ofleaving the audience unimpressed. This is a more importantmatter than it may at first sight appear. How to bring home to theaudience a decisive change of heart is one of the ever-recurringproblems of the playwright's craft. In The Lady from the Sea, Ibsenfailed to solve it: in Rosmersholm he solved it by heroic measures.The whole catastrophe is determined by Rosmer's inability to acceptwithout proof Rebecca's declaration that Rosmersholm has "ennobled'her, and that she is no longer the same woman whose relentlessegoism drove Beata into the mill-race. Rebecca herself puts it tohim: "How can you believe me on my bare word after to-day?" Thereis only one proof she can give---that of "going the way Beatawent." She gives it: and Rosmer, who cannot believe her if shelives, and will not survive her if she dies, goes with her to herend. But the cases are not very frequent, fortunately, in whichsuch drastic methods of proof are appropriate or possible. Thedramatist must, as a rule, attain his end by less violent means;and often he fails to attain it at all. A play by Mr. HaddonChambers, The Awakening, turned on a sudden conversion---the"awakening," in fact, referred to in the title. A professionallady-killer, a noted Don Juan, has been idly making love to acountry maiden, whose heart is full of innocent idealisms. Shediscovers his true character, or, at any rate, his reputation, andis horror-stricken, while practically at the same moment, he"awakens" to the error of his ways, and is seized with a passionfor her as single-minded and idealistic as hers for him. But howare the heroine and the audience to be assured of the fact? That isjust the difficulty; and the author takes no effectual measures toovercome it. The heroine, of course, is ultimately convinced; butthe audience remains skeptical, to the detriment of the desiredeffect. "Sceptical," perhaps is not quite the right word. The stateof mind of a fictitious character is not a subject for actualbelief or disbelief. We are bound to accept theoretically what theauthor tells us; but in this case he has failed to make usintimately feel and know that it is true. In Mr. AlfredSutro's play The Builder of Bridges, Dorothy Faringay, in herdevotion to her forger brother, has conceived the ratherdisgraceful scheme of making one of his official superiors fall inlove with her, in order to induce him to become practically anaccomplice in her brother's crime. She succeeds beyond her hopes.Edward Thursfield does fall in love with her, and, at a greatsacrifice, replaces the money the brother has stolen. But, in avery powerful peripety-scene in the third act, Thursfield learnsthat Dorothy has been deliberately beguiling him, while in fact shewas engaged to another man. The truth is, however, that she hasreally come to love Thursfield passionately, and has broken herengagement with the other, for whom she never truly cared. So theauthor tells us, and so we are willing enough to believe---if hecan devise any adequate method of making Thursfield believe it. Mr.Sutro's handling of the difficulty seems to me fairly, but notconspicuously, successful. I cite the case as a typical instance ofthe problem, a part from the merits or demerits of thesolution. It may be said that the difficulty of bringing hometo us the reality of a revulsion of feeling, or radical change ofmental attitude, is only a particular case of the playwright'sgeneral problem of convincingly externalizing inward conditions andprocesses. That is true: but the special importance of a conversionwhich unties the knot and brings the curtain down seemed to renderit worthy of special consideration. ( Full Answer )
Features of drama 1. Characterization 2. Chronology and time 3. Dialog 4. Role 5. Stage Direction 6. Title 7. Acts 8. Production
It's hard to 'define' poetry and establish a set of fixed features, but there are some general tendencies and typical features which are more often used in poetry than other genres. Examples of such are brevity, overstructuring (grouping, repeating,... certain elements and thus structuring, creati…ng meaning), self-referentiality (poems draw attention to themselves, they refer back to elements in themselves), subjectivity (poems are read from the highly subjective point of view of the speaker), fragile aesthetic illusion (the reader has to re-center him/herself in the fictional world), etc. Poems also use certain features to create meaning which are not normally used for semantic purposes in other genres, e.g. typography and phonolgy. ( Full Answer )
The four basic features of a cell are as follows: . Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of all living things and contains inheritable genetic material. . The activity of the cell is carried out by the sub-cellular structures it possesses. . Cells possess an outer boundary layer,c…alled a cell membrane ,cytoplasm,which contains organelles ,and genetic material. . There is considerable variety among living cells including the function of membranes and sub-cellular structures and the different types of functions the cells out,such as chemical transport,support,and other function. ( Full Answer )
microsoft has the basic features of all sreadsheets,using a grid of cell arranged in numbred rows and letter-named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations.
There are five parts to every essay, and each part has five parts. The basic essay: I). Introductory paragraph A). Introductory sentence, the Hook, and the Thesissentence/statement B). First thesis point C). Second thesis point D). Third thesis point E). Concluding sentence II). Body Paragraph A). R…estating/rephrasing of the first thesis point from theintroductory paragraph B). First supporting sentence C).Second supporting sentence D). Third supporting sentence E). Concluding sentence III). Body Paragraph A). Restating/rephrasing of the second thesis point from theintroductory paragraph B). First supporting sentence C). Second supporting sentence D). Third supporting sentence E). Concluding sentence IV). Body Paragraph A).Restating/rephrasing of the third thesis point from theintroductory paragraph B). First supporting sentence C). Second supporting sentence D). Third supporting sentence E). Concluding sentence V). Concluding Paragraph - The concluding paragraph is equally asimportant as the introduction. You must restate (rephrase) yourthesis sentence and all supporting material in a brief and conciseformat. You must state your proof to your supporting points. And,you must conclude your essay. All of this must fit with or mergewith everything you wrote previously. A). Transitional sentence that perhaps rewords the thesis statementof the Introductory paragraph. B). Conclusional sentence rewordingthe conclusion of the first body paragraph. C). Conclusional sentence rewording the conclusion of the secondbody paragraph. D). Conclusional sentence rewording the conclusionof the third body paragraph. E). Summation sentence to close the paper and the argument made.Sounds simultaneously simple and complex. Keep in mind that theminimum length of any essay is five paragraphs, with five sentencesper paragraph; that's 25 sentences. You'll find that this limit ismore and more difficult to maintain as you write more. You willfind it difficult to limit yourself to such a small format. ( Full Answer )
An essay should contain an introduction and a conclusion. Within the body of the essay, each paragraph should contain a clear and distinct topic, made clear by the topic sentence which is usually the opening sentence of the paragraph. The paragraph topics must follow logically from each other and he…lp to develop the theme or argument of the essay. --thats wat ol i know :) ( Full Answer )
The basic feature of an essay are it has beginning, a body, and an end. It aims to be descriptive and explains a lot about the chosen subject.
1. Thesis : your main insight or idea about a text or topic, and the main proposition that your essay demonstrates. It should be true but arguable (not obviously or patently true, but one alternative among several), be limited enough in scope to be argued in a short composition and with availa…ble evidence, and get to the heart of the text or topic being analyzed (not be peripheral). It should be stated early in some form and at some point recast sharply (not just be implied), and it should govern the whole essay (not disappear in places). 2. Motive : the intellectual context that you establish for your topic and thesis at the start of your essay, in order to suggest why someone, besides your instructor, might want to read an essay on this topic or need to hear your particular thesis argued-why your thesis isn't just obvious to all, why other people might hold other theses (that you think are wrong). Your motive should be aimed at your audience: it won't necessarily be the reason you first got interested in the topic (which could be private and idiosyncratic) or the personal motivation behind your engagement with the topic. Indeed it's where you suggest that your argument isn't idiosyncratic, but rather is generally interesting. The motive you set up should be genuine: a misapprehension or puzzle that an intelligent reader (not a straw dummy) would really have, a point that such a reader would really overlook. Defining motive should be the main business of your introductory paragraphs, where it is usually introduced by a form of the complicating word "But." 3. Evidence : the data-facts, examples, or details-that you refer to, quote, or summarize to support your thesis. There needs to be enough evidence to be persuasive; it needs to be the right kind of evidence to support the thesis (with no obvious pieces of evidence overlooked); it needs to be sufficiently concrete for the reader to trust it (e.g. in textual analysis, it often helps to find one or two key or representative passages to quote and focus on); and if summarized, it needs to be summarized accurately and fairly. 4. Analysis : the work of breaking down, interpreting, and commenting upon the data, of saying what can be inferred from the data such that it supports a thesis (is evidence for something). Analysis is what you do with data when you go beyond observing or summarizing it: you show how its parts contribute to a whole or how causes contribute to an effect; you draw out the significance or implication not apparent to a superficial view. Analysis is what makes the writer feel present, as a reasoning individual; so your essay should do more analyzing than summarizing or quoting. 5. Keyterms : the recurring terms or basic oppositions that an argument rests upon, usually literal but sometimes a ruling metaphor. These terms usually imply certain assumptions -unstated beliefs about life, history, literature, reasoning, etc. that the essayist doesn't argue for but simply assumes to be true. An essay's keyterms should be clear in their meaning and appear throughout (not be abandoned half-way); they should be appropriate for the subject at hand (not unfair or too simple-a false or constraining opposition); and they should not be inert clichÃ©s or abstractions (e.g. "the evils of society"). The attendant assumptions should bear logical inspection, and if arguable they should be explicitly acknowledged. 6. Structure : the sequence of main sections or sub-topics, and the turning points between them. The sections should follow a logical order, and the links in that order should be apparent to the reader (see "stitching"). But it should also be a progressive order-there should have a direction of development or complication , not be simply a list or a series of restatements of the thesis ("Macbeth is ambitious: he's ambitious here ; and he's ambitious here ; and he's ambitions here , too; thus, Macbeth is ambitious"). And the order should be supple enough to allow the writer to explore the topic, not just hammer home a thesis. (If the essay is complex or long, its structure may be briefly announced or hinted at after the thesis, in a road-map or plan sentence.) 7. Stitching : words that tie together the parts of an argument, most commonly (a) by using transition (linking or turning) words as signposts to indicate how a new section, paragraph, or sentence follows from the one immediately previous; but also (b) by recollection of an earlier idea or part of the essay, referring back to it either by explicit statement or by echoing key words or resonant phrases quoted or stated earlier. The repeating of key or thesis concepts is especially helpful at points of transition from one section to another, to show how the new section fits in. 8. Sources : persons or documents, referred to, summarized, or quoted, that help a writer demonstrate the truth of his or her argument. They are typically sources of (a) factual information or data, (b) opinions or interpretation on your topic, (c) comparable versions of the thing you are discussing, or (d) applicable general concepts. Your sources need to be efficiently integrated and fairly acknowledged by citation. 9. Reflecting : when you pause in your demonstration to reflect on it, to raise or answer a question about it-as when you (1) consider a counter-argument - a possible objection, alternative, or problem that a skeptical or resistant reader might raise; (2) define your terms or assumptions (what do I mean by this term? or, what am I assuming here?); (3) handle a newly emergent concern (but if this is so, then how can X be?); (4) draw out an implication (so what? what might be the wider significance of the argument I have made? what might it lead to if I'm right? or, what does my argument about a single aspect of this suggest about the whole thing? or about the way people live and think?), and (5) consider a possible explanation for the phenomenon that has been demonstrated (why might this be so? what might cause or have caused it?); (6) offer a qualification or limitation to the case you have made (what you're not saying). The first of these reflections can come anywhere in an essay; the second usually comes early; the last four often come late (they're common moves of conclusion). 10. Orienting : bits of information, explanation, and summary that orient the reader who isn't expert in the subject, enabling such a reader to follow the argument. The orienting question is, what does my reader need here? The answer can take many forms: necessary information about the text, author, or event (e.g. given in your introduction); a summary of a text or passage about to be analyzed; pieces of information given along the way about passages, people, or events mentioned (including announcing or "set-up" phrases for quotations and sources). The trick is to orient briefly and gracefully. 11. Stance : the implied relationship of you, the writer, to your readers and subject: how and where you implicitly position yourself as an analyst. Stance is defined by such features as style and tone (e.g. familiar or formal); the presence or absence of specialized language and knowledge; the amount of time spent orienting a general, non-expert reader; the use of scholarly conventions of form and style. Your stance should be established within the first few paragraphs of your essay, and it should remain consistent. 12. Style : the choices you make of words and sentence structure. Your style should be exact and clear (should bring out main idea and action of each sentence, not bury it) and plain without being flat (should be graceful and a little interesting, not stuffy). 13. Title : It should both interest and inform. To inform-i.e. inform a general reader who might be browsing in an essay collection or bibliography-your title should give the subject and focus of the essay. To interest, your title might include a linguistic twist, paradox, sound pattern, or striking phrase taken from one of your sources (the aptness of which phrase the reader comes gradually to see). You can combine the interesting and informing functions in a single title or split them into title and subtitle. The interesting element shouldn't be too cute; the informing element shouldn't go so far as to state a thesis. Don't underline your own title, except where it contains the title of another text. ( Full Answer )
having more than one business competing for the same consumers will cause the products and/or services to be provided at a better quality and a lower cost than if there were no competitors.
chimpanzees looks like humans but are stronger, when chimps are 4 they are stronger than most adults and are not good house pets.
Indian dramas basically show the hardships of a large family, due to overpowering wealth and dominance.
Ai sus un lng d p nin u alm,,,kong d nin u alam tanong nin u s techear nin u,
A holding company is defined in Black's Law Dictionary , 9th Ed., as "[a] company formed to control other companies, usually confining its role to owning stock and supervising management[, that] does not participate in making day-to-day business decisions in those companies."
The Republic of South Africa a constitutional democracy much like the government in the US. There are three branches, Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary. Legislative authority is held by the Parliament of South Africa. Executive authority is held by the President of South Africa. The president is… elected from the Parliament to serve a fixed term. The national, provincial and local levels of government all have legislative and executive authority in their own spheres, and are defined in the South African Constitution as "distinctive, interdependent and interrelated". The Central African Republic works in a similar way, but the Prime Minister holds Executive power. Political associations such as the African Union offer hope for greater co-operation and peace between the continent's many countries. The African Union consists of all African countries except Morocco. ( Full Answer )
1. An archipelago 2. Located at the heart of Southeast Asia. 3. Situated between China, Taiwan and HongKong in the North, Borneo in the South, the Pacific Ocean in the East, and Singapore, Thailand and Malaysia in the West. 4. Has 7,107 islands 5. The islands are divided into 3 groups- Luzon, Visa…yas, Mindanao 6. Mt. Apo is the highest mountain 7. Sierra Madre Mountain - the longest mountain range 8. Laguna de Bay, the largest freshwater lake ( Full Answer )
There are several snow blowers on the market that have similar features as the MTD Snowblower system. These are the Troy-Bilt, Yard Machines and Poulan to name a few.
There is no information available about a YouTune software. However, the YouTube software uses a video technology that features video uploading, video playback, video quality and codecs 480p, 720p, 3D videos, content accessibility, video localisation.
An ergonomic office would have an ergonomic chair that has good lumbar support and have a way to adjust the height. One should also have a rest for the wrists while working with the keyboard and the mouse.
A play takes place on a stage of some sort, and for the benefit of an audience which would have seating of some kind in view of the stage. A play is performed by one or more actors. A play has a script, it is not entirely improvised (although it can include improvisational elements). Normally, a pla…y has a producer, who makes the necessary arrangements for it to happen, and a director, who coordinates the actors into a coherent whole. Plays may or may not require backdrops, props, costumes, or special forms of make-up. Plays can be very complicated or very simple. In terms of the script itself, plays normally have stage directions, for example, the action of this scene takes place in a living room which has a couch and two chairs and a coffee table; it also normally has dialogue. Actors talk to other actors, or in some cases, they address the audience, or just talk to themselves, pensively. They may deliver speeches, also known as soliloquies. There are a number of famous soliloquies in the plays of Shakespeare. Plays sometimes include singing, dancing, sword fights (which technically are also a form of dancing, when done theatrically) or other specialized activities. Some plays call for actors to eat meals, drink beverages, smoke cigarettes, or any other recognizable human activity. But plays can also consist of an actor who does nothing other than talk to the audience. There are many ways to conceive of a play. ( Full Answer )
That is a very good question. But it is very hard to explainwithout the visualization of demonstration.
The basic features of ftp include ability to connect to an FTPserver, ability to save connection settings, and ability to movefiles between your local system and remote server.
First, circuits have devices that are run by electrical energy.Second, a circuits has a source of electrical energy. Third,electrical circuits are connected by conducting.
Basic features of Magento includes . Reporting and Analytics . Product and Catalog Browsing . Customer Accounts . Order Management . Payment . Site Management . Shipping . Search engine optimization . Marketing promotions and tools . Checkout . International Support . Read more: weba…ppmate.com/magento-services.php ( Full Answer )