What is a white bump in the middle of your tongue and why does it hurt when you touch it or eat or drink and how long will it last?

You probably burned your toungue. You can use some ambesol or lidocaine based gel to numb it. It shouldn't be anything to worry about. If it persists past 2 weeks, call your doctor.

Nothing to worry about. You have irritated a taste bud. It will go away in a day or so. If you are brave (and really really careful) you can lance it and the pain will go away instantly (my experience). When I say LANCE, I mean cut it off using a very sharp, small scissor or the like. I do not suggest doing this unless you are in dire pain.