What is accomplished by the process of respiration?
Respiration releases energy from food by a complex series of chemical reaction.
The process known as diffusion. The cardiovascular system plays a large role by transporting both of these gases through the blood. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are both carried by the red blood cells (RBC). The carbon dioxide is "buffered" by the blood to keep it from turning acidic. This process results in respiration. The two kinds of respiration are internal (tissue) respiration and external (pulmonary) respiration.
Oxidative phosphorylation (contrast substrate-level phosphorylation) is the process of ATP generation during aerobic cellular respiration. It is accomplished through a process of chemiosmosis, wherein H+ ions are concentrated on one side of mtichondrial membranes, creating an electrochemical gradient which is equilibrated when hydrogen ions (protons) pass through the enzyme ATP synthase, resulting in rotation of the protein and phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.