Asked in Biology
What is an epicuticle?
Asked in Biology
What adaptation in the exoskeletons of terrestrial anthropods prevents water loss?
Asked in Ants
Insects that live on land have a coating of wax on the outer surface of their body What function might the wax serve for these animals?
Not only land insects have such a coating; in fact water insects such as whirligig beetles and giant water beetles have such a thick and oily wax coating that they are almost too slippery to handle. They need their slippery coating partly to let them slip smoothly through the water and live in the water in much the same way as land insects can live on land. The wax layer of water insects is largely to protect them from the water and it does so better than a layer of Teflon could, resisting wetting for months on end, even though the insects never leave the water. The reason it can do that is that, unlike a Teflon layer, the waxy layer is constantly renewed. People speak of a waxy layer, and in some insects, especially desert insects, the layer is in fact solid wax, almost like the wax of a candle, although it is chemically somewhat different. (In case you were wondering about the chemistry, it is not an alkane, like candle wax, but mainly a mix of esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols. It is not pure though, but intimately connected to proteins and other materials of the insect's cuticle.) However, in some insects, especially those living in places that are not dusty and are cool and often moist, the waxy coating is oily rather than solid. Examples of such insects include cockroaches and some kinds of termites. Water insects use their waxy layer to repel water, much as a raincoat does for humans. That way they can control the rate at which they otherwise might take up too much water. Thirst can kill, but too much water also can kill. For land insects however, loss of water is far more important. Their waxy layer, which in most species is so thin that it takes special microscopic techniques to be able to see it at all, serves mainly to prevent the insect from losing its water by drying out. Remember that insects are much smaller than humans are, so they have a very small amount of body material for each bit of skin. A beetle about as big as a fingernail has about 240 times as much skin for its mass as a human does, so it needs to avoid losing water through its skin about 240 times as carefully. Otherwise in dry air it would die of parching in a matter of minutes, rather than hours. Also remember that insects are arthropods, like spiders, scorpions, woodlice and so on. Each of these has its own protection from drying out, but it seems likely that the insects' wax layer is more effective and resists higher temperatures than those of most other arthropods. Some zoologists think that their wax layer is one of the main evolutionary advantages that permitted insects to be so successful compared to other arthropods. Certainly it is true that anything that seriously damages the waxy epicuticle is a serious problem for an insect. If the damage is not too serious most insects, especially long lived insects, like termite queens, can mend the damage; some very effective insecticides however, are totally nonpoisonous - they simply are powders that scratch or soak up the epicuticle waxes. The insects parch to death fairly quickly in dry air. Some people think that the reason that birds take dust baths is that the dust kills birdlice and other parasites in that way.
What is the outer covering on a spider's body called?
The spiders outer covering is an exoskeleton. It is made of a substance called chitin. there are layers of this substance with four strucural regions: epicuticle, procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane. Of these the epicuticle is a multi-layered external barrier that, especially in terrestrial arthropods, acts as a barrier against dessiccation. The strength of the exoskeleton is provided by the underlying procuticle, which is in turn secreted by the epidermis. Arthropod cuticle is a biological composite material, consisting of two main portions: fibrous chains of alpha-chitin within a matrix of silk-like and globular proteins, of which the most well-known is the rubbery protein called resilin. The relative abundance of these two main components varies from approximately 50/50 to 80/20 chitin protein, with softer parts of the exoskeleton having a higher proportion of chitin. Although the cuticle is relatively soft when first secreted, it soon hardens in a poorly-understood process that involves dehydration and/or tanning mediated by hydrophobic chemicals called phenolics. Different types of interaction between the proteins and chitin leads to varying mechanical properties of the exoskeleton. In addition to the chitino-proteinaceous composite of the cuticle, many crustaceans, some myriapods and the extinct trilobites further impregnate the cuticle with mineral salts, above all calcium carbonate, which can make up up to 40% of the cuticle. This can lead to great mechanical strength. The two layers of the cuticle have different properties. The outer, scleretosed layer is very strong under compressive forces, but much weaker under tension. When it fails, it does so by cracking. The inner layer is not scleritosed, and is thus much softer; it is able to resist tensile forces but is liable to failure under compression. This combination is especially effective in resisting predation, as predators tend to exert compression on the outer layer, and tension on the inner. The degree of scleritisation affects how the cuticle responds to deformation. Below a certain point - and this point will be higher the more scleritised the cuticle is - deformation is elastic and the original shape is returned to after the stress is removed. Above this point, plastic (non-reversible) deformation occurs until finally the cuticle cracks The arthropod exoskeleton is typically divided into different functional units to allow flexibility in an often otherwise rigid structure. For example, the head is a fused capsule; and the trunk is often divided into a series of articulating sclerites called tergites. In addition, the characteristic limbs of arthropods need to be jointed. The internal surface of the exoskeleton is often elaborated into a set of specialised structures called apodemes that allow the attachment of muscles. Such endoskeletal components of the arthropod skeleton can be highly complex, as in crabs and lobsters. The relative rigidity of the exoskeleton means that continuous growth of arthropods is not possible. Therefore, growth is periodic and concentrated into a period of time when the exoskeleton is shed, called moulting or ecdysis, which is under the control of a hormone called ecdysone. Moulting is a complex process that is invariably dangerous for the arthropod involved. Before the old exoskeleton is shed, the cuticle separates from the epidermis through a process called apolysis. New cuticle is excreted by the underlying epidermis, and mineral salts are usually withdrawn from the old cuticle for re-use. After the old cuticle is shed, the arthropod typically pumps up its body (for example, by air or water intake) to allow the new cuticle to expand to a larger size: the process of hardening by dehydration of the cuticle then takes place. Newly molted arthropods typically appear pale or white, and darken as the cuticle hardens.
Asked in Vitamins and Supplements
Is it safe to take silica compound tablets during pregnancy?
Is silica safe during pregnancy? Hard to say, I've found sites that say its okay, and others that say it should be used with caution. My doctor hadn't heard of it. In my search on the internet, this is what I've found so far... == == These sites seem to imply it is safe 1. Super Silica Plus - 120 vegicaps., (Harmonic Innerprizes Formerly Etherium Tech) SuperSilica Plus consists of the following herbal extracts: Bamboo stems, Horsetail, Nettles, Organic Barley Grass juice, Dandelion roots & leaves, Yellow Dock root, and a specially created enzyme base to maximize the breakdown of silica. Harmonic Innerprizes Gold safe to take during pregnancy and nursing? How about for children? From what age? Harmonic Innerprizes Gold is probably safe to take intermittently during pregnancy in small amounts, consuming no more that 1/16 teaspoon, or 1/2 of a 300mg capsule per day. However, during pregnancy, a mother's energy is naturally focused inward to the developing fetus. We do not recommend taking any substance that diverts energy from this natural process. A better consideration would be Aulterra. It is not stimulating and it balances and harmonizes the energy fields of the body. This can be extremely beneficial during pregnancy. Aulterra is also an excellent source of dietary silica which is the most abundant mineral in the tissue of both the fetus and placenta at the time of birth. In general, we do not recommend Harmonic Innerprizes Gold or any of the other powders except Aulterra for children under the age of twelve. Source: http://www.reason2shop.com/5399.html 2. What exactly is silica and what is it supposed to do? Silica is an essential mineral for health. The highest concentration of silica (silicon dioxide) is found in connective tissues, cartilage and skin, with skin and the epicuticle of the hair containing the most. This mineral strengthens collagen and elastin fibres and contributes to tissue elasticity. As the silica level of the skin diminishes with advancing age, the tissues become increasingly inelastic and brittle. Can I take this product if I am planning pregnancy, if I am pregnant or breast-feeding? Whilst all ingredients found in Silica-OK are deemed safe for food supplements, which are classed as a food, we always recommend that those planning pregnancy, who are pregnant or breast-feeding consult their doctor prior to taking any food supplements. Source: http://www.wassen.com/q_and_a/silica-ok.html 3. Useful Herbs in Pregnancy The following herbs have been used traditionally for various reasons during pregnancy. Choosing which herbs to use depends on individual circumstances. It is not necessary to use all the herbs in the hopes of avoiding all possible problems that may occur during a pregnancy. Use only those herbs, singly or in combinations as teas or tinctures, which fit your needs. As always, be in contact with your health practitioner if you are experiencing serious problems or discomfort. This information is taken from a medical website discussing the uses of various herbs in pregnancy. It is not meant to be used to diagnose a problem, and should be discussed with your doctor before taking.... ...Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) -- rich mineral and silica content for strong bones; long-term use requires thiamine (vitamin B1) supplementation... Source: http://www.pregnancy-info.net/herbal_supplements.html These sites seem to imply it should be used with caution 1. Herbs to avoid or use with caution during preganacy- Many herbs contain steroids that can affect the baby's development during pregnancy and/or nursing. Others may be of a mild toxic type, and others may be strong uterine stimulants. Please read this section carefully and take heed.... ...Horsetail - too high in silica for the developing fetus. Source: http://www.naturalark.com/herbpreg.html 2. Organic Silica Horsetail herb is an excellent natural source of Silica and, as such, is beneficial to the condition of the skin, hair and nails. Horsetail also has strong astringent and tonic properties, combined with mild diuretic properties, that make it particularly useful for complaints of the urinary system, the kidney and the bladder. Contraindications: Not to be used during pregnancy unless under the supervision of a qualified practitioner. Source: http://www.thepharmacy.co.nz/itpharmacy/active-botanicals/organic-silica/index.html
What are 10 letter words that end in E?
abbreviate, abhorrence, abominable, absolutive, absolutize, absorbable, absorbance, absorptive, abstinence, accelerate, accentuate, acceptable, acceptance, accessible, accomplice, accordance, accumulate, accusative, achievable, achondrite, acidophile, acoelomate, acquirable, acrylamide, actinolite, actionable, adamantine, adjudicate, adjunctive, adjustable, admissible, admittance, adrenaline, adsorbable, adsorptive, adulterate, adulterine, advertence, advocative, aeciospore, aerogramme, aerosolize, affectable, affirmable, affirmance, afflictive, affordable, afterimage, afterpiece, aftershave, aftertaste, aggrandise, aggrandize, aggressive, agoraphobe, alkalinize, allegiance, allegorise, allegorize, alliterate, alongshore, altarpiece, amalgamate, amantadine, ameliorate, amerciable, amoebocyte, amphiphile, analyzable, anastomose, anastrophe, andalusite, anecdotage, anglophone, animalcule, animallike, annihilate, annotative, annunciate, anopheline, answerable, antagonize, anthracene, 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carpospore, catabolite, catabolize, catafalque, catarrhine, categorise, categorize, cellarette, cellobiose, cellophane, censurable, centerline, centigrade, centralise, centralize, centrifuge, centromere, centrosome, chalcocite, chalybeate, changeable, channelize, chargeable, charitable, chartreuse, chatelaine, chatoyance, cheapskate, cheesecake, chelatable, chelicerae, chemisette, cherrylike, cherublike, chiffonade, chifforobe, chimpanzee, chlamydiae, chloralose, chloramine, chlorinate, choanocyte, chromomere, chromosome, chrysolite, chrysotile, cimetidine, cinchonine, cinematize, circumcise, circumfuse, citrulline, classicize, clepsydrae, clingstone, clofibrate, clomiphene, cloudscape, coacervate, coagulable, cockamamie, cockatrice, cofavorite, cogitative, cognizable, cognizance, colatitude, colchicine, colemanite, coleoptile, collarbone, collective, collegiate, colportage, columellae, combinable, combustive, comedienne, comestible, commentate, commissure, commixture, communique, commutable, comparable, compatible, compensate, competence, completive, compliance, complicate, compradore, compromise, compulsive, computable, conceptive, concertize, concessive, conciliate, conclusive, concoctive, concretize, concussive, condensate, condolence, condonable, conductive, conference, confidante, confidence, confiscate, confluence, congestive, conglobate, congregate, congruence, conjecture, connective, connivance, conscience, consecrate, consociate, consonance, constative, constipate, constitute, constringe, consuetude, consultive, consumable, consummate, contexture, continence, continuate, contortive, contravene, contribute, convalesce, convective, conveyance, convulsive, coordinate, copulative, corbiculae, cordierite, cornerwise, corpulence, corrective, corrigible, corroboree, corrodible, corruptive, corselette, corsetiere, countersue, courseware, courthouse, couturiere, covariance, covenantee, crassitude, craterlike, creatinine, creditable, crepuscule, crosspiece, crunchable, crystalize, ctenophore, cuddlesome, cultivable, cumbersome, cumulative, cunctative, cuttlebone, cyberspace, cyclodiene, cyclostome, cyclostyle, cysteamine, cystoscope, cytochrome, daggerlike, deactivate, debilitate, decapitate, decathlete, deceivable, decelerate, decimalize, declarable, declinable, decolonize, decolorize, decorative, deductible, defeasance, defeasible, defeminize, defendable, defensible, deferrable, definitive, definitize, definitude, deflagrate, deflective, deformable, defrayable, degenerate, degradable, degressive, dehiscence, dehumanize, delaminate, delectable, deliberate, deliquesce, delocalize, demandable, demobilize, demodulate, demoiselle, demonetize, demoralize, denominate, denotative, dentifrice, dependable, dependance, dependence, depletable, deplorable, deployable, depolarize, depopulate, deportable, depreciate, depressive, deracinate, deregulate, derivative, derivatize, derogative, desalinate, desalinize, deshabille, desiderate, desistance, 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effloresce, effulgence, eigenvalue, elecampane, electorate, elucubrate, emancipate, emarginate, emasculate, embossable, embouchure, employable, enamelware, encashable, endamoebae, endoenzyme, endopodite, endorsable, enfleurage, ensanguine, entamoebae, enterprise, enumerable, enunciable, epicuticle, episcopate, epistrophe, epithelize, equivocate, eradicable, ergonovine, ergotamine, escadrille, escritoire, espadrille, estimative, eternalize, eupatridae, euryhaline, evacuative, evaluative, evangelize, everyplace, everywhere, eviscerate, exacerbate, exactitude, exaggerate, examinable, exasperate, excellence, excitative, excludable, excludible, excogitate, excruciate, execrative, executable, exenterate, exhaustive, exhibitive, exhilarate, expandable, expansible, expatriate, expectable, expectance, expedience, expellable, expendable, experience, explicable, exploitive, exportable, expositive, expressage, expressive, extendable, extendible, extensible, extinctive, extractive, extricable, extrudable, exuberance, exurbanite, facilitate, factorable, fanaticize, farmerette, fastigiate, fatherlike, fathomable, featurette, federalese, federalize, federative, felicitate, fenestrate, fescennine, fettuccine, fiberscope, fibrillate, fictionize, fieldpiece, fieldstone, figurative, filterable, fingerlike, flabellate, flagellate, flapdoodle, flatulence, flavorsome, floatplane, flocculate, flowerette, flowerlike, fluoridate, fluorinate, fluviatile, fontanelle, footbridge, forecaddie, forecastle, forfeiture, forgivable, formidable, fourragere, foursquare, franchisee, frangipane, fraternize, fratricide, freightage, friezelike, frolicsome, furanoside, furosemide, gadolinite, galleryite, gametocyte, garnierite, gastronome, gastrulate, gearchange, gelatinize, generalise, generalize, generative, geniculate, gentilesse, geometrise, geometrize, geoscience, ghostwrite, ghostwrote, glamourize, glasshouse, glauconite, gormandise, gormandize, governable, governance, gramophone, grandniece, granduncle, granophyre, graphitize, graptolite, gravestone, grecianize, greenhouse, greenstone, grindstone, guardhouse, guidwillie, guillotine, habilitate, hagioscope, halogenate, handleable, harborside, headcheese, heartsease, heathenize, heatstroke, heliotrope, helmetlike, hemisphere, hemorrhage, hepatocyte, heretofore, heterodyne, heulandite, hexokinase, hippodrome, histiocyte, hobbyhorse, hodgepodge, hollowware, holoenzyme, homogenate, homogenise, homogenize, homologate, homologize, homozygote, honeyguide, honourable, hornblende, hospitable, housebroke, humoresque, hydrophane, hydrophone, hydrophyte, hydroplane, hydrospace, hygrophyte, hyperacute, hyperaware, hyperbolae, hyperplane, hyperspace, hypertense, hypotenuse, iconoscope, ideologize, ignimbrite, illaudable, illegalize, illiterate, illuminate, illustrate, imaginable, imipramine, immaculate, immersible, immiscible, immittance, immobilize, immoderate, immortelle, impalpable, imparadise, impartible, impassable, impassible, impatience, impeccable, imperative, implacable, importable, importance, impossible, imposthume, impregnate, impressive, impressure, improbable, improvable, imprudence, impugnable, imputative, inaccurate, inactivate, inadequate, inapposite, inaptitude, inarguable, inaugurate, incandesce, inchoative, incinerate, incipience, inclinable, includable, includible, incomplete, incredible, incubative, inculpable, incurrence, indecisive, indefinite, indelicate, indicative, indictable, indigenize, inductance, indulgence, indurative, ineducable, inelegance, ineligible, ineludible, ineptitude, inevitable, inexorable, inexpiable, infallible, infeasible, inferrible, infiltrate, infinitive, infinitude, inflatable, inflective, inflexible, inflictive, ingestible, ingratiate, ingressive, inhibitive, inimitable, initialize, initiative, injectable, injunctive, innominate, innovative, innumerate, inoperable, inordinate, inosculate, inquietude, insatiable, inselberge, inseminate, insensible, insistence, insociable, insolvable, inspective, inspissate, insufflate, insurgence, intangible, integrable, intendance, intenerate, intercaste, interfluve, intergrade, interleave, interphase, interrogee, interspace, interstage, interstate, interstice, intertwine, interweave, intimidate, intoxicate, intraplate, intrastate, intuitable, invaginate, invalidate, invaluable, invariable, invariance, invertible, investable, inveterate, invigilate, invigorate, invincible, inviolable, ionosphere, iridosmine, irradiance, irrelative, irremeable, irresolute, irritative, isocyanate, isolatable, isoleucine, italianate, italianise, italianize, jardiniere, jasperware, jeopardise, jeopardize, johnnycake, journalese, journalize, judicature, junglelike, kafkaesque, kenspeckle, keratinize, kerseymere, kimberlite, kinetosome, knobkerrie, lacerative, lachrymose, lacustrine, ladderlike, lamentable, lanceolate, lanthanide, lateralize, laundrette, lavalliere, lawyerlike, legitimate, legitimise, legitimize, lemniscate, lengthwise, lentamente, lepidolite, leptospire, lexicalize, liberalise, liberalize, licensable, licentiate, lighterage, lighthouse, lightplane, limitative, limitrophe, listenable, literalize, literature, lithophane, lithophyte, littermate, lobotomise, lobotomize, locomotive, lophophore, luciferase, lusterware, luxuriance, lymphocyte, lymphokine, lyophilise, lyophilize, lysogenise, lysogenize, macadamize, machinable, macrophage, macrophyte, macroscale, magistrate, maisonette, malignance, manageable, manipulate, mansuetude, maquillage, margravate, margravine, marguerite, marionette, marketable, marquisate, marrowbone, martensite, martingale, mascarpone, masquerade, masturbate, mayonnaise, measurable, meddlesome, meditative, megafaunae, megagamete, melanocyte, melanosome, mellophone, menstruate, mensurable, meperidine, mercantile, mesenchyme, mesosphere, metabolite, metabolize, metaphrase, metastable, methedrine, methionine, mettlesome, microcline, microcurie, microfiche, microimage, microphage, microphone, microprobe, microquake, microscale, microscope, microspore, microstate, mignonette, militarise, militarize, millicurie, minaudiere, mineralise, mineralize, minestrone, minicourse, mirrorlike, misbalance, misbelieve, miscompute, miseducate, misfortune, mispackage, missionize, mistakable, mithridate, mitigative, modifiable, moisturise, moisturize, mongrelize, monochrome, monopolise, monopolize, monstrance, mosaiclike, motivative, motorcycle, mousseline, mouthpiece, multicurie, multigrade, multiphase, multipiece, multirange, multisense, multistage, multistate, musicalise, musicalize, mycoflorae, mystagogue, myxomycete, nalorphine, naltrexone, nationwide, naturalise, naturalize, naumachiae, needlelike, negligence, negligible, negotiable, negrophobe, nematicide, nematocide, nephoscope, nettlesome, neutralise, neutralize, newspeople, nifedipine, nightscope, nightshade, nominative, nonathlete, noncollege, nondefense, nondurable, nonhistone, nonhostile, nonobscene, nonpassive, nonroutine, nonsalable, nonscience, nonseptate, nontaxable, nonvintage, noticeable, notifiable, novaculite, nucleoside, nucleosome, nucleotide, numberable, nunciature, nurturance, obliterate, obnubilate, observable, observance, obtainable, occurrence, oligoclase, operculate, oppressive, orbiculate, orchidlike, ordonnance, orthoclase, orthograde, ostensible, otherwhere, otherwhile, outachieve, outbalance, outcompete, outproduce, outpromise, outsparkle, outwrestle, overactive, overblouse, overbrowse, overcharge, overdosage, overexcite, overexpose, overfacile, overhandle, overmanage, overmature, overpeople, overpraise, oversimple, overstride, overstrode, oversubtle, oxidizable, pacifiable, packsaddle, palaestrae, palatalize, palatinate, palindrome, palliative, paniculate, papaverine, paradiddle, paraphrase, parasitise, parasitize, pardonable, participle, pasquinade, passionate, pasteurise, pasteurize, patentable, patisserie, patriciate, pediculate, pejorative, pendentive, penetrable, penetrance, peppertree, percentage, percentile, perceptive, percussive, perdurable, perfective, perfoliate, peridotite, perishable, periwinkle, permanence, permeative, permillage, permissive, permutable, perovskite, peroxidase, peroxisome, perpetrate, perpetuate, perquisite, persecutee, persiflage, personable, persuasive, pertinence, perversive, pestilence, phenacaine, philistine, philosophe, phlogopite, photodiode, photophase, photophore, pianoforte, picaresque, pigeonhole, pilferable, pilgrimage, pillowcase, pilothouse, pimpmobile, pincerlike, piperazine, piperidine, pistillate, plagiarise, plagiarize, planchette, planetlike, planetwide, plasmagene, plasmolyze, plasticene, plasticine, plasticize, plebiscite, plentitude, pocketable, polemicize, politicise, politicize, polychaete, polychrome, polygamize, polylysine, polymerase, polymerise, polymerize, ponderable, popularise, popularize, possessive, postdebate, postfreeze, poststrike, potentiate, powderlike, powerhouse, praemunire, pratincole, preapprove, prearrange, precedence, preceptive, preclusive, precollege, precompute, predecease, predestine, predicable, predictive, predispose, prednisone, preemptive, prefecture, preferable, preference, prefinance, prehensile, premeasure, prepackage, prerelease, prerequire, prescience, preservice, pressurise, pressurize, prestorage, presumable, presuppose, prevalence, preventive, primiparae, prioritize, procaryote, procurable, producible, productive, profitable, profitwise, profligate, projectile, projective, prokaryote, prologuize, prominence, promotable, promulgate, propagable, propionate, propitiate, propulsive, prostitute, protective, proteinase, protensive, protostele, protostome, protrusive, provenance, providence, psilophyte, psittacine, pubescence, pulverable, punishable, puppetlike, purtenance, purveyance, putrescine, pyranoside, pyridoxine, pyrimidine, pyrolusite, pyrolysate, pyrolyzate, pyroxenite, pyrrhotite, quadrangle, quadrature, quadrupole, quantitate, quarantine, quarterage, quenchable, quiescence, quinacrine, racecourse, radarscope, radicalise, radicalize, radiopaque, radiophone, radiosonde, ramshackle, rawinsonde, reactivate, realizable, reallocate, reappraise, reasonable, reassemble, rebuttable, recallable, recanalize, recappable, receivable, receptacle, recitative, reclosable, recolonize, recommence, recompense, reconceive, recondense, reconvince, recordable, recoupable, recreative, recrudesce, recuperate, recurrence, recyclable, redecorate, rededicate, redeemable, redemptive, redescribe, redissolve, reeligible, reenergize, reenthrone, reentrance, reescalate, reestimate, reevaluate, reexposure, refillable, reflective, reformable, refractile, refractive, refulgence, refundable, regenerate, regressive, regularize, regulative, rehumanize, reinitiate, rejuvenate, relativize, releasable, relievable, relishable, reluctance, remarkable, remarriage, remediable, remissible, remittable, remittance, remobilize, remonetize, remotivate, removeable, remunerate, renascence, renderable, renominate, renovative, reorganize, repairable, reparative, repatriate, repealable, repeatable, repentance, repertoire, repetitive, replicable, repolarize, repopulate, reportable, repressive, reprobance, repugnance, repurchase, reregulate, reschedule, resealable, resectable, resentence, reservable, resettable, resilience, resistance, resistible, resolvable, resorptive, respective, respirable, responsive, restorable, resupinate, resurgence, reticulate, retractile, retrograde, returnable, revalidate, revalorize, revealable, revegetate, reversible, revertible, reviewable, revitalise, revitalize, revolvable, rewardable, rhabdomere, rhapsodize, rhinestone, rhizoplane, ribbonlike, rigamarole, roquelaure, rotisserie, roughhouse, roundhouse, roundtable, rubberlike, ruminative, sacahuiste, saccharase, saccharide, saccharine, saddletree, salicylate, samarskite, sandgrouse, sapphirine, saprophyte, saucerlike, scaloppine, scandalise, scandalize, scapegrace, schematize, schipperke, schoolmate, schooltime, scintillae, screenable, scrubbable, scrutinise, scrutinize, scutellate, seamanlike, searchable, seasonable, secularise, secularize, securitize, seecatchie, seignorage, selectable, semicircle, semidivine, semiopaque, senescence, sensualize, sententiae, separative, sermonette, serpentine, settleable, shadowlike, shaggymane, shankpiece, shovelnose, shrimplike, shrinkable, sialagogue, siderolite, sidesaddle, sidestroke, silhouette, silverside, silverware, similitude, simulative, singletree, slenderize, smaragdine, smaragdite, smokehouse, smoothbore, snowmobile, solicitude, solubilise, solubilize, somatotype, somnolence, soundalike, soundstage, sousaphone, spathulate, specialise, specialize, spermicide, sperrylite, sphalerite, spherulite, sphinxlike, spiderlike, spirochete, spokeshave, spongeware, sporophore, sporophyte, sporozoite, spreadable, springlike, springtide, springtime, squamulose, squeezable, squeteague, stablemate, stalactite, stalagmite, statehouse, statoscope, statuesque, statutable, staurolite, stavesacre, stereotype, stigmatize, storehouse, strandline, strategize, streamline, streamside, streetwise, stridulate, strippable, striptease, strychnine, subaudible, subaverage, subcollege, subcordate, subculture, subjective, sublicense, sublimable, submissive, submucosae, subprimate, subroutine, subscience, subseizure, subsidence, substitute, subsumable, subsurface, subterfuge, subversive, subvisible, successive, succulence, sufferable, sufferance, sugarhouse, suggestive, sulphurise, summerlike, summertime, summonable, superelite, superlarge, supernovae, superoxide, superplane, superscale, superstate, superstore, suppletive, suppliance, supplicate, supportive, supposable, surjective, surplusage, survivable, survivance, susceptive, suspensive, sustenance, switchable, swoopstake, symmetrize, sympathise, sympathize, syncretise, syncretize, synecdoche, synonymize, synthesize, synthetase, tabernacle, tambourine, taradiddle, tarantulae, tardigrade, targetable, tattletale, teethridge, telecourse, teliospore, temperable, temperance, tenantable, terminable, terneplate, tessellate, tetracaine, tetraspore, theodolite, theologise, theologize, thermalize, thermopile, thiaminase, thorianite, threadbare, threadlike, threepence, threescore, thwartwise, tiemannite, timberline, titratable, tolerative, tonguelike, toothpaste, touchstone, tourmaline, trabeculae, trailerite, tramontane, trampoline, trancelike, transcribe, transferee, transience, transitive, transshape, transudate, transvalue, transverse, traumatise, traumatize, travelogue, travertine, triacetate, triathlete, trichinize, trichogyne, tricolette, trifoliate, trifurcate, tripartite, tripinnate, triplicate, triradiate, trisulfide, triturable, trivialise, trivialize, troglodyte, tropopause, truculence, tryptamine, tumescence, tunnellike, turbulence, turnbuckle, turpentine, turtledove, typhlosole, tyrocidine, tyrosinase, ubiquinone, ulcerative, ultradense, ultrafiche, umbilicate, unamenable, unarguable, unbearable, unbeatable, unbendable, unburnable, unchewable, uncoalesce, uncoercive, uncreative, undeniable, underglaze, underprice, underscore, understate, undervalue, underwrite, underwrote, uneducable, unenviable, unfavorite, unfeasible, unfeminine, unfindable, unhandsome, unifoliate, uninitiate, univariate, unknowable, unladylike, unnameable, unopenable, unpassable, unplayable, unprovable, unreadable, unreliable, unsaturate, unscalable, unscramble, unsellable, unshakable, unsinkable, unslakable, unsociable, unsolvable, unsuitable, untestable, untillable, unwearable, unwinnable, unworkable, upgradable, uredospore, utilizable, valleculae, varicocele, vasoactive, vaticinate, vaudeville, vegetative, velocipede, velvetlike, ventricose, verifiable, vernissage, vertebrate, vesiculate, vespertine, vibraphone, vicariance, videophile, videophone, villanelle, vindicable, vindictive, vinylidene, virescence, vituperate, vivandiere, vociferate, volatilise, volatilize, vulnerable, waterborne, waterscape, weatherize, westernise, westernize, wheelhorse, wheelhouse, whorehouse, willowlike, willowware, windowpane, wintertide, wintertime, wolframite, woodenware, workpeople, worthwhile, wraithlike, yellowware, youthquake, zabaglione, zidovudine, zombielike 1938 words