Surgery and Hospitalization

What is arthrodesis?

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Answered 2008-09-19 19:06:15

The surgical procedure to stiffen joints or join several vertebrae together. This is also known as a surgical ankylosis or fusion.

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What procedure is often performed with laminectomy?


What is the other term for surgical ankylosis of fusion?


What is the CPT code for arthrodesis of elbow joint?


Is arthrodesis considered a disability?

Well,Considering the fact that Arthrodesis is very rare, especially in foreign countries such as Pakistan, it is not considered a disability because there are so few people who have it and there is no cure. Between 15-20% of victims of Arthrodesis die within 5 years of the seeing the symptoms which are not always noticable.Hope This Helps!

What is the medical terminology combining form meaning surgical fusion to immobilize?

The suffix is -desis, such as arthrodesis. In this case, arthrodesis means surgical fusion of a joint to another joint, usually to relieve pain from joint conditions such as arthritis.

What is the Medical term meaning surgical fixation or stiffening of a joint?

Arthrodesis is a surgical procedure that stiffens a joint or joins spinal vertebrae. Arthrodesis means the fixation of a joint. The suffix -desis means "surgical fixation of." Joint fusion or arthrodesis is a method used for pain relief , regain stability and strength. The bones are aligned in the most functional position, but lose their natural motion. In a related term, ankylosis is the abnormal stiffening of a joint.

What procedure is often performed with a laminectomy?

When a laminectomy (removal of a lamina) is performed, an arthrodesis (surgical of joints) is also performed.

What has the author John Crawford Adams written?

John Crawford Adams has written: 'Arthritis and back pain' -- subject(s): Arthritis, Arthritis, Rheumatoid, Backache, Rheumatoid arthritis 'Ischio-femoral arthrodesis' -- subject(s): Arthrodesis, Hip joint, Surgery 'The Globe Playhouse' 'Shakespeare's physic, lore & love' -- subject(s): Medicine, Criticism and interpretation, Knowledge

What is the medical terminology combining form meaning surgical fusion?

-desis is the medical term meaning surgical fusion. For instance, arthrodesis is surgical fusion of a joint.

What does the suffix -desis mean?

It is a Greek word which means binding together, a term used in Orthopaedic operation when two bones are joined together- Arthrodesis

Which term means the stiffening of a joint or jointing of spinal vertebrate by surgical means?

arthodesis Fusing the joint Arthrodesis is also known as surgical ankylosis or fusion

What is the medical term meaning surgical procedure to loosen an ankylosed joint?

The surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint is called ARTHROLYSIS. Arthrodesis is the opposite -- surgical ankylosing of a joint.

What is the difference between the two suffixes pexy and desis?

Both mean surgical fixation , -desis also includes fusing, such as arthrodesis, fusing a joint., whereas -pexy is generally tissue, affixing it in place, such as a nephropexy to suspend a floating kidney

What is the medical term meaning surgical stiffening of a joint or joining of vertebrae?

arthodesisFusing the jointArthrodesis is also known as surgical ankylosis or fusion.Source: Medical Terminology for Health Professions Sixth Edition by Ann Ehrlich & Carol L. Schroeder. Page 79.

Why would your wrist randomly get stiff with pains and it involves wrist popping whenever i move it in a circle?

It sounds like the cartilege in the joints has become altered. The cartilege keeps the bones at the joint from rubbing together, hence the popping sound. It can also cause pain and swelling and lead to arthritis. It depends on where the pain is. If it's near the center of your wrist, then you may have torn your scapholunate ligament. I'd strongly suggest that you see a hand and microvascular surgeon, rather than a run-of-the-mill orthopaedic surgeon. On a side note, I tore my scapholunate, went and saw an orthopaedic surgeon and he told me that "I don't want to have the surgical procedure to repair it." He never told me what was wrong, just that I didn't want surgery. I decided to get a second opinion and by then it was too late. There's a 3-6 week time window for scapholunate repair and once it passes, you've gotta live with it until you develop full-blown SLAC wrist and require wrist arthrodesis (bone fusion), decreasing your range of motion by as much as 95%.

How long does it take for a horse to heal after arthrodesis surgery on both hocks?

My horse recently had this procedure done at the Cornell University Equine Hospital. She is a 10 yr old AQHA Mare. At this writing it has been about 9 days following surgery. I can share what I was told about her after care and recovery. Stall rest for 14 days, then she can go out to pasture. I plan to keep her separate from the rest of the herd for about 1-2 days and let her relax after confinement. If she appears sound after 3 months we can begin rides building up to a normal level of work over the 2 months following. I was warned that some horses take longer than others so improvement may take as long as 4-6 months. Prognosis is fair to good. Sometimes that sounds pretty good when there are no options left. Please avoid the ethyl alcohol injections. The DVM informed me that eventually the alcohol can seep to the upper hock and the failure rate was quoted as 20% which is rather high. Unfortunately the alcohol will destroy the cartledge and the horse is useless.

Can you take Ibuprofen with Percocet?

I just had some bones fused in my foot. (Subtalor Arthrodesis). And I checked with my Doctor and my pharmacy which I urge you to do also, for total peace of mind. Yes you can take them together or what I was doing was the ibuprofen every two hours and the percocet every 4 to 6 hours as needed for the really severe pain. The ibuprofen seemed to extend the pain killing peak of the percocet while effectivly managing the swelling under the compression bandage\cast. Doseage was 8oomg Ibuprofen every 6 hours slipped in between the doseage times for the percocet. But I found what worked better was 4oomg every 2 to 4 hours as needed in addition to the percocet. It's working well to manage pain and swelling as well. Generally yes, athough you shouldn't need to. The ibuprofen will supply more relief of inflammation. And the percocet will provide more pain relief from its narcotic and analgesic ingredients. but, they are not commonly prescribed together. If you received the prescriptions at different times, or are considering taking over the counter ibuprofen, you should ask your health care provider first. Of course you can. I'm in the military and I just got my wisdom teeth removed and ibuprofen 800 mg along with percocet were both prescribed to me. Yes. Percocet, much like hydro/oxycodone, contains tylenol. Ibuprofen is an entirely different drug than tylenol, and these are safe to take together. What you want to watch out for is taking too much tylenol. Consult your doctor for more exact advice.

Clubfoot repair?

DefinitionClubfoot repair is surgery to correct a birth defect of the foot and ankle.See also: ClubfootAlternative NamesRepair of clubfoot; Foot tendon release; Clubfoot release; Talipes equinovarus - repair; Talectomy; Fusion surgery for the foot; Triple arthrodesisDescriptionThe type of surgery that is done depends on how serious the deformity is, how old your child is, and what other treatments your child has had.Your child will have general anesthesia (asleep and not feeling pain) during the surgery.Your child's surgeon may make the tendons around your child's foot longer or shorter. This will help the surgeon put the bones and joints into normal positions. Sometimes, pins are placed in the foot for a time.One or two small cuts are made in the skin around the ankle and foot.A cast is placed on the foot after surgery to keep it in position while it heals.Older children who still have a foot deformity after surgery may need more surgery. Also, children who have not had surgery for their deformity yet may need surgery as they grow. The kind of surgery they may need are:Osteotomy: removal of part of the boneFusion or arthrodesis: 2 or more bones are fused together. The surgeon will use bone from somewhere else in the body.Metal pins or plates may be used to hold the bones together for a while.Why the Procedure Is PerformedLigaments are tissues that help hold the bones together in your body. Tendons are tissues that help attach your muscles to your bones. A clubfoot occurs when a person has tight tendons and ligaments in their foot and ankle. These tight tissues hold the bones in the wrong position.A baby born with a clubfoot is first treated with casts.The foot is stretched into a more normal position. Then a lightweight cast is placed on the foot to hold it in position.A new cast will be placed every week so the foot can be stretched further into better position. Cast changes continue for about 2 months.Clubfoot repair surgery is considered if the cast or other treatments do not fully correct the problem. This will often be done before your child is 1 year old or before they begin standing.Older children or adults may need surgery if a clubfoot was never treated, or if they still have foot problems after treatment.RisksRisks from any anesthesia are:Breathing problemsReactions to medicinesRisks from any surgery are:BleedingInfectionPossible problems from clubfoot surgery are:Foot swellingProblems with blood flow to the footDamage to nerves in the footBefore the ProcedureYour child's doctor may:Test your child's blood (do a complete blood count and check electrolytes or clotting factors)Do x-rays of the clubfootTake a medical history of your childDo a complete physical examination of your childAlways tell your child's doctor or nurse:What drugs your child is takingInclude drugs, herbs, and vitamins you bought without a prescriptionDuring the days before the surgery:About 10 days before the surgery, you may be asked to stop giving your child aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), warfarin (Coumadin), and any other drugs that make it hard for your child's blood to clot.Ask your child's doctor which drugs your child should still take on the day of the surgery.On the day of the surgery:Most times, your child will not be able to drink or eat anything for several hours before the surgery.Give your child a small sip of water with any drugs your doctor told you to give your child.Your child's doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive for the surgery.After the ProcedureYour child will stay in the hospital for about 1 to 3 days right after their surgery. Their hospital stay may be longer if they also had surgery on their bones. Their foot will be kept in a raised position. They may be given medicines to help control their pain.The skin around your child's cast will be checked often to make sure it stays pink and healthy. Your child's toes also will be checked to make sure they are pink and your child can move and feel them. These are signs of proper blood flow.Your child will have a cast on for about 12 weeks. It will be changed at least 2 or 3 times. Before your child leaves the hospital, you will be taught how to take care of the cast.When the last cast is taken off, your child's doctor will refer your child for physical therapy. The therapist will teach you exercises to do with your child to strengthen their foot and make sure it stays flexible.Your child might need to wear a brace after surgery.Outlook (Prognosis)After recovering from surgery, your child's foot should work like a normal foot. Your child should be able to have a normal, active life. But their foot may be stiffer than normal or stiffer than a foot not treated with surgery.In most cases, the child's foot and calf may be smaller than normal the rest of their life.Children who have had clubfoot surgery may need another surgery later in their life.ReferencesCanale ST, Beatty JH, eds. Congenital clubfoot (talipes equinovarus) In: Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 26.

Bunion removal?

DefinitionBunion removal is surgery to treat deformed bones of the big toe and foot. For more information on this type of deformity, see: BunionAlternative NamesBunionectomy; Hallux valgus correctionDescriptionYou will be awake during the procedure. You willl given anesthesia (numbing medicine) so that you will not feel pain and medicines to help you relax.The surgeon makes a surgical cut to expose the toe joint and bones. The surgeon repairs the deformed joint and bones, using pins, screws, plates, or a cast to keep the bones in place.The surgeon may repair the bunion by:Making certain tendons or ligaments shorter or longerArthrodesis, which involves taking out the damaged part of the joints and then using screws, wires, or a plate to hold the joint togetherShaving off the bump on the toe jointRemoving the damaged part of the jointCutting parts of the bones on each side of the toe joint, then putting them in their proper position. This is called an osteotomy.Why the Procedure Is PerformedBunion removal surgery may be recommended when non-surgical treatments do not work. An example of a non-surgical treatment is switching to shoes with a wide toe box to make room for the bump caused by the bunion.Surgery is recommended to correct the deformity and restore normal, pain-free use of the foot.RisksRisks for any anesthesia are:Allergic reactions to medicinesBreathing problemsRisks for any type of surgery are:BleedingBlood clotInfectionRisks for bunion surgery are:Numbness in the big toeProblems with the incision not healing wellReturn of the deformityNerve damageBefore the ProcedureAlways tell your doctor or nurse what drugs you are taking, even drugs, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription.During the 2 weeks before your surgery:You may be asked to stop taking drugs that make it harder for your blood to clot. These include aspirin, ibuprofen, (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve), and other drugs.Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of your surgery.If you have diabetes, heart disease, or other medical conditions, your surgeon will ask you to see your doctor who treats you for these conditions.Tell your doctor if you have been drinking a lot of alcohol, more than 1 or 2 drinks a day.If you smoke, try to stop. Ask your doctor or nurse for help. Smoking can slow down wound and bone healing.Always let your doctor know about any cold, flu, fever, herpes breakout, or other illness you may have before your surgery.You may want to visit a physical therapist to learn some exercises to do before surgery. The physical therapist can also teach you how to correctly use crutches.On the day of your surgery:You will usually be asked not to drink or eat anything for 6 to 12 hours before the procedure.Take your drugs your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive at the hospital.After the ProcedureMost people go home the same day they have bunion removal surgery.You should keep your foot propped up and protected from injury while it heals.Your doctor will tell you how much weight you can put on your foot.Full recovery may take 3 to 5 weeks.Outlook (Prognosis)You should have less pain after your bunion is removed. You should also be able to walk more easily. This surgery does repair some of the deformity of your foot. But it will not give you a perfect-looking foot.ReferencesRichardson EG. Disorders of the hallux. In: Canale ST, Beatty JH, eds.Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 78.

Bone graft?

DefinitionA bone graft is surgery to place new bone into spaces around a broken bone or bone defects.Alternative NamesAutograft; AllograftDescriptionThe new bone can be taken from the patient's own healthy bone (this is called an autograft) or from frozen, donated bone (allograft).A surgeon makes a cut over the bone defect. The bone graft is shaped and inserted into and around the area. The new bone is held in place with pins, plates, or screws. Stitches are used to close the wound. A splint or cast is usually used to prevent injury or movement while healing.Why the Procedure Is PerformedBone grafts are used to:Fuse joints to prevent movementRepair broken bones (fractures) that have bone lossRepair injured bone that has not healedRisksThe risks for any anesthesia include:Reactions to medicationsProblems breathingThe risks for any surgery include:BleedingInfectionAfter the ProcedureMost bone grafts help the bone defect to heal with little risk of graft rejection.Outlook (Prognosis)Recovery time depends on the injury or defect being treated and generally varies from 2 weeks to 2 months. Vigorous exercise may be restricted for up to 6 months.

Spinal fusion?

DefinitionSpinal fusion is surgery to join together two bones (vertebrae) in the spine. Fusing permanently joins two bones together so there is no longer movement between them. Spinal fusion is usually done along with other surgical procedures of the spine.Alternative NamesVertebral interbody fusion; Posterior spinal fusion; Arthrodesis; Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusionDescriptionYou will be asleep and feel no pain (general anesthesia).Your surgeon has several choices about where to make the incision (cut).The surgeon may make an incision on your back or neck over the spine. You will be lying face down on a special table. Muscles and tissue are separated to expose the spine.The surgeon may make a cut through one side of your belly (for surgery on your lower back). The surgeon will use tools called retractors to gently separate, hold the soft tissues and blood vessels apart, and have room to work.The surgeon may make the cut on the front of the neck, toward the side.Other surgery, such as a diskectomy, laminectomy, or a foraminotomy, is almost always done first.The surgeon will use a graft (such as bone) to hold (or fuse) the bones together permanently. There are several different ways of fusing vertebrae together:Strips of bone graft material may be placed over the back part of the spine.Bone graft material may be placed between the vertebrae.Special cages may be placed between the vertebrae. These cages are packed with bone graft material.The surgeon may get the graft from different places:From another part of your body (usually around your pelvic bone). This is called an autograft. Your surgeon will make a small cut over your hip and remove some bone from the back of the rim of the pelvis.From a bone bank, called allograft.A synthetic bone substitute can also be used, but this is not common yet.The vertebrae are often also fixed together with screws, plates, or cages. They are used to keep the vertebrae from moving until the bone grafts fully healed.Surgery can take 3 to 4 hours.Why the Procedure Is PerformedSpinal fusion may be recommended for persistent pain that does not get better with other treatments. It may be done in the following cases:Along with other surgical procedures for spinal stenosis, such as foraminotomy or laminectomyAfter diskectomy in the neckInjury or fractures to the bones in the spineWeak or unstable spine caused by infections or tumorsSpondylolisthesis, a condition in which one vertebrae slips forward on top of anotherAbnormal curvatures, such as those from scoliosis or kyphosisRisksRisks for any surgery are:Blood clots in the legs that may travel to the lungsBreathing problemsInfection, including in the lungs (pneumonia), or bladder or kidneyBlood lossHeart attack or stroke during surgeryReactions to medicationsRisks for spine surgery are:Infection in the wound or vertebral bonesDamage to a spinal nerve, causing weakness, pain, loss of sensation, problems with your bowels or bladderThe spinal column above and below the fusion are more likely to cause other back later.Before the ProcedureAlways tell your doctor or nurse what drugs you are taking, even drugs or herbs you bought without a prescription.During the days before the surgery:If you are a smoker, you need to stop. Patients who have spinal fusion and continue to smoke may not heal as well. Ask your doctor for help.Two weeks before surgery, your doctor or nurse may ask you to stop taking drugs that make it harder for your blood to clot. These include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn), and other drugs like these.If you have diabetes, heart disease, or other medical problems, your surgeon will ask you to see your regular doctor.Talk with your doctor if you have been drinking a lot of alcohol.Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of the surgery.Always let your doctor know about any cold, flu, fever, herpes breakout, or other illnesses you may have.On the day of the surgery:You will usually be asked not to drink or eat anything for 6 to 12 hours before the procedure.Take your drugs your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive at the hospital.After the ProcedureYou will need to stay in the hospital for 3 to 4 days after surgery. The repaired spine should be kept in the right position to maintain alignment.If the surgery involved a surgical cut in the chest, a chest tube may be used to drain fluid build-up. The tube is usually removed after 24 to 72 hours.You will receive pain medicines in the hospital. You may have a pump where you control how much pain medicine you get, you may get shots or intravenous (IV) injections, or you may take pain pills.You will be taught how to move properly and how to sit, stand, and walk. You'll be told to use a "log-rolling" technique when getting out of bed. This means that you move your entire body at once, without twisting your spine.You may not be able to eat for 2 to 3 days and will be fed through an IV. When you leave the hospital, you may need to wear a back brace or cast.Outlook (Prognosis)Spine surgery will often provide full or partial relief of symptoms.Future spine problems are possible for all patients after spine surgery. After spinal fusion, the area that was fused together can no longer move. Therefore, the spinal column above and below the fusion are more likely to be stressed when the spine moves, and have problems later. Also, if you needed more than one kind of back surgery (such as laminectomy and spinal fusion), you may have more of a chance of future problems.ReferencesWeinstein JN, Tosteson TD, Lurie JD, et al. Surgical versus nonsurgical therapy for lumbar spinal stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:794-810.Katz JN, Harris MB. Clinical practice: lumbar spinal stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(8):818-825.Chou R, Qaseem A, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of low back pain: a joint clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians and the American Pain Society. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(7):478-491.Hedequist DJ. Surgical treatment of congenital scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 2007;38(4):497-509.Curlee PM. Other disorders of the spine. In: Canale ST, Beatty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 41.


DefinitionOsteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder.Alternative NamesHypertrophic osteoarthritis; Osteoarthrosis; Degenerative joint disease; DJD; OA; Arthritis - osteoarthritisCauses, incidence, and risk factorsIn osteoarthritis, the cushioning (cartilage) between the bones wears away in the joints. As osteoarthritis gets worse, the cartilage disappears and bone rubs on bone. Bony spurs or growths usually form around the joint. The ligaments and muscles around the joint loosen and become weaker.Often, the cause of OA is unknown. It is mainly related to aging, but other factors can also lead to OA.Osteoarthritis tends to run in familiesBeing overweight increases the riskFractures or other joint injuries can lead to osteoarthritis later in lifeLong-term overuse at work or in sports can lead to osteoarthritisMedical conditions that can lead to osteoarthritis include:Bleeding disorders that cause bleeding in the joint, such as hemophiliaDisorders that block the blood supply near a joint, such as avascular necrosisOther types of arthritis, such as chronic gout, pseudogout, or rheumatoid arthritisThe symptoms of osteoarthritis usually appear in middle age and almost everyone has them by age 70. Before age 55, the condition occurs equally in men and women. After age 55, it is more common in women.SymptomsThe symptoms of osteoarthritis include:Deep aching joint pain that gets worse after exercise or putting weight on it, and is relieved by restPain that is worse when you start activities after a period of no activityOver time, pain is present even when you are at restGrating of the joint with motionIncrease in pain during humid or moist weatherJoint swellingLimited movementMuscle weakness around arthritic jointsSome people might not have symptoms.Signs and testsA physical exam can show:Joint movement may cause a cracking (grating) soundJoint swelling (bones around the joints may feel larger than normal)Limited range of motionTenderness when the joint is pressedNormal movement is often painfulNo blood tests are helpful in diagnosing osteoarthritis.An x-ray of affected joints will show a loss of the joint space. In advanced cases, there will be a wearing down of the ends of the bone and bone spurs.TreatmentThe goals of treatment are to:Increase the strength of the jointsMaintain or improve joint movementReduce the disabling effects of the diseaseRelieve painThe treatment depends on which joints are involved.MEDICATIONSOver-the-counter pain relievers can help with symptoms. Most doctors recommend acetaminophen (Tylenol) first, because it has fewer side effects than other drugs.If your pain continues, your doctor may recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs help relieve pain and swelling. Types of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen.However, long-term use of NSAIDs can cause stomach problems, such as ulcers and bleeding. These drugs may also increase the risk for heart attacks and strokes.The prescription drug, Celebrex (a COX-2 inhibitor) may work as well as other NSAIDs. Because of a risk for heart attacks and stroke, it is given only at the lowest possible dose for the shortest possible period of time.Corticosteroids injected right into the joint can also be used to reduce swelling and pain. However, relief only lasts for a short time.Many people use over-the-counter remedies such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate. There is some evidence that these supplements can help control pain, although they do not seem to grow new cartilage. Some doctors recommend a trial period of 3 months to see whether glucosamine and chondroitin work.Capsaicin (Zostrix) skin cream may help relieve pain. You may feel a warm, stinging sensation when you first apply the cream. This sensation goes away after a few days of use. Pain relief usually begins within 1 - 2 weeks.Artificial joint fluid (Synvisc, Hyalgan) can be injected into the knee. It may relieve pain for 3 - 6 months.LIFESTYLE CHANGESExercise helps maintain joint and overall movement. Ask your health care provider to recommend an appropriate home exercise routine. Water exercises, such as swimming, are especially helpful.Other lifestyle recommendations include:Applying heat and coldEating a healthy, balanced dietGetting restLosing weight if you are overweightProtecting the jointsPeople whose work is causing stress in certain joints should find ways to reduce trauma. You may need to adjust the work area or change work tasks.PHYSICAL THERAPYPhysical therapy can help improve muscle strength and the motion at stiff joints. Therapists have many techniques for treating osteoarthritis. If therapy does not make you feel better after 3 - 6 weeks, then it likely will not work at all.BRACESSplints and braces can sometimes support weakened joints. Some prevent the joint from moving; others allow some movement. You should use a brace only when your doctor or therapist recommends one. Using a brace the wrong way can cause joint damage, stiffness, and pain.SURGERYSevere cases of osteoarthritis might need surgery to replace or repair damaged joints. Surgical options include:Arthroscopicsurgery to trim torn and damaged cartilageChanging the alignment of a bone to relieve stress on the bone or joint (osteotomy)Surgical fusion of bones, usually in the spine (arthrodesis)Total or partial replacement of the damaged joint with an artificial joint (knee arthroplasty, hip arthroplasty)Support GroupsFor more information and support, see arthritis resources.Expectations (prognosis)Your movement may become very limited. Treatment generally improves function.ComplicationsAdverse reactions to drugs used for treatmentDecreased ability to perform everyday activities, such as personal hygiene, household chores, or cookingDecreased ability to walkSurgical complicationsCalling your health care providerCall your health care provider if you have symptoms of osteoarthritis.PreventionWeight loss can reduce the risk of knee osteoarthritis in overweight women.ReferencesGregory PJ, Sperry M, Wilson AF. Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:177-184.Hunter DJ. In the clinic: Osteoarthritis. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(3):ITC8-1-ITC8-16.

11 letter word starting with an A?

abandonment abbreviated abbreviates abbreviator abdications abdominally abecedarian aberrancies aberrations abhorrences abhorrently abiogeneses abiogenesis abiogenists abiological abiotically abjurations ablutionary abnegations abnormality abolishable abolishment abominating abomination abominators aboriginals abortionist aboveground abracadabra abreactions abridgement abridgments abrogations abscissions absenteeism absolutions absolutisms absolutists absolutized absolutizes absorbances absorbingly absorptance absorptions abstentions abstentious abstinences abstinently abstracters abstractest abstracting abstraction abstractive abstractors abstricting absurdities abusiveness academician academicism acatalectic acaulescent accelerando accelerants accelerated accelerates accelerator accentually accentuated accentuates acceptances acceptation acceptingly accessaries accessional accessioned accessorial accessories accessorise accessorize accidentals accipitrine acclamation acclimating acclimation acclimatise acclimatize acclivities accommodate accompanied accompanies accompanist accomplices accordances accordantly accordingly accoucheurs accountable accountably accountancy accountants accountings accoutering accrediting accruements acculturate accumulated accumulates accumulator accusations accusatives accustoming acerbically acetabulums acetanilide acetanilids acetylating acetylation acetylative achievement achondrites achondritic achromatism achromatize acidimeters acidimetric acidophiles acidophilic acidulating acidulation acknowledge acoelomates acoustician acquainting acquiescent acquiescing acquirement acquisition acquisitive acquisitors acquittance acridnesses acriflavine acrimonious acrocentric acromegalic acropetally acrophobias acropolises acrylamides actinically actinolites actinometer actinometry actinomyces actinomycin activations actomyosins actualities actualizing actuarially acupressure acupuncture acutenesses adaptations adaptedness addressable adenomatous adeptnesses adiposities adjacencies adjectively adjournment adjudicated adjudicates adjudicator adjunctions adjurations adjustments adjutancies admeasuring administers admiralties admirations admittances admonishers admonishing admonitions adolescence adolescents adoptianism adoptionism adoptionist adorability adrenalines adrenalized adsorptions adulterants adulterated adulterates adulterator adultnesses adumbrating adumbration adumbrative advancement advantaging adventitial adventitias adventurers adventuress adventuring adventurism adventurist adventurous adverbially adversarial adversaries adversative adverseness adversities advertences advertently advertisers advertising advertizing advertorial advisements advocations aeciospores aepyornises aerenchymas aerobically aerobicized aerobicizes aerobiology aerobraking aerodynamic aeroelastic aerogrammes aeromedical aeronautics aeronomical aeronomists aerosolized aerosolizes aerostatics aesthetical aestivating aestivation aetiologies affectation affectingly affectional affectioned affectively affectivity afficionado affiliating affiliation affirmances affirmation affirmative affixations afflictions affluencies afforesting affricative affrighting aficionadas aficionados afterbirths afterburner aftereffect afterimages aftermarket afterpieces aftershaves aftershocks aftertastes afterworlds agamospermy agelessness agglomerate agglutinate agglutinins aggradation aggrandised aggrandises aggrandized aggrandizer aggrandizes aggravating aggravation aggregately aggregating aggregation aggregative aggressions aggrievedly agitational agnosticism agonizingly agoraphobes agoraphobia agoraphobic agrarianism agriculture agronomists ahistorical aiguillette ailanthuses ailurophile ailurophobe aimlessness airbrushing airdropping airfreights airlessness airmanships airproofing airsickness airworthier alabastrine albatrosses albuminuria albuminuric alchemistic alchemizing alcoholisms alcyonarian aldosterone alertnesses alexandrine alexandrite algebraists algolagniac algolagnias algological algologists algorithmic alienations aliennesses alightments alikenesses aliteracies alivenesses alkalifying alkalimeter alkalimetry alkalinized alkalinizes alkylations allantoides allegations allegiances allegorical allegorised allegorises allegorists allegorized allegorizer allegorizes allegrettos allelomorph allelopathy alleviating alleviation alleviators alliterated alliterates alloantigen allocatable allocations allocutions allografted allographic allometries allomorphic allopatries allopurinol allosteries allotropies allowancing allurements almsgivings alonenesses aloofnesses alpenstocks alphabeting alphabetize altarpieces altazimuths alterations altercating altercation alternately alternating alternation alternative alternators altimetries altitudinal altocumulus altogethers altostratus aluminizing amalgamated amalgamates amalgamator amantadines amaranthine amaryllises amateurisms amativeness amazonstone ambassadors ambergrises ambiguities ambiguously ambisexuals ambitioning ambitiously ambivalence ambiversion amblygonite ambrosially ambulations ambuscaders ambuscading ambushments ameliorated ameliorates ameliorator ameloblasts amenability amenorrheas amenorrheic amercements amethystine amiableness amicability aminopterin aminopyrine ammoniating ammoniation ammonifying ammunitions amobarbital amoebocytes amontillado amoralities amorousness amorphously amortizable amoxicillin amoxycillin amphetamine amphibolies amphibolite amphibology amphibrachs amphictyony amphimacers amphioxuses amphipathic amphiphiles amphiphilic amphiploids amphiploidy amphisbaena ampicillins amplenesses amputations amusingness amygdaloids amyloidoses amyloidosis amylopectin amyloplasts anabaptisms anachronism anachronous anacoluthic anacoluthon anacreontic anadiploses anadiplosis anaesthesia anaesthetic anagnorises anagnorisis anagramming analemmatic analogizing analogously analphabets analyticity analyzation anaphylaxes anaphylaxis anarchistic anastigmats anastomosed anastomoses anastomosis anastomotic anastrophes anatomising anatomizing ancestoring ancestrally anchoresses anchorwoman anchorwomen anchovettas ancientness ancientries ancillaries andalusites androgynies androgynous anecdotages anecdotally anecdotical anecdotists anemographs anemometers anencephaly anesthesias anesthetics anesthetist anesthetize anfractuous angelfishes angelically angiography angiomatous angioplasty angiosperms angiotensin anglicising anglicizing angrinesses angulations anilinguses animadverts animalcules animalculum animalistic animalities animalizing animateness animosities aniseikonia aniseikonic anisogamies anisogamous anisotropic ankylosaurs annexations annihilated annihilates annihilator anniversary annotations annualizing annulations annunciated annunciates annunciator anodization anointments anomalously anonymities anonymously anophelines anorthosite anovulatory antagonisms antagonists antagonized antagonizes antecedence antecedents antecessors antechamber antechapels antenatally antenuptial antependium antepenults anteverting antheridial antheridium anthocyanin anthologies anthologist anthologize anthracenes anthracites anthracitic anthracnose anthropical anthropoids antialcohol antianxiety antibaryons antibiotics antiboycott antiburglar anticathode anticipants anticipated anticipates anticipator anticruelty anticyclone antidotally antidumping antielitism antielitist antiemetics antifascism antifascist antifashion antifatigue antifoaming antifogging antiforeign antifouling antifreezes antifungals antigravity antiheroine antihunting antijamming antileprosy antileptons antiliberal antilogical antimalaria antimatters antimissile antimitotic antimoderns antimonials antimonides antimusical antinatural antinatures antineutron antinomians antinuclear antinucleon antiobesity antioxidant antiozonant antipathies antiphonals antiphonary antiphonies antiphrases antiphrasis antiplagues antipodeans antipopular antipoverty antiprotons antipyreses antipyresis antipyretic antipyrines antiquarian antiquaries antiquating antiquation antiquities antiracisms antiracists antiradical antirealism antirealist antirrhinum antiscience antisecrecy antiseizure antiseptics antisexists antislavery antismokers antismoking antistories antistrophe antistudent antisubsidy antisuicide antitarnish antithyroid antitobacco antitruster antitumoral antitussive antityphoid antivitamin antiwelfare antiwhaling antiwrinkle antonomasia anxiolytics anxiousness aortography apartmental apartnesses apatosaurus aphetically aphrodisiac apicultural apicultures apishnesses apocalypses apocalyptic apologetics apologising apologizers apologizing apomorphine aponeuroses aponeurosis aponeurotic apophthegms apophyllite aposiopeses aposiopesis aposiopetic apostatised apostatises apostatized apostatizes apostleship apostolates apostrophes apostrophic apotheosize appallingly apparatchik apparatuses apparelling apparitions appealingly appearances appeasement appellation appellative apperceived apperceives appertained appetencies applaudable applaudably applesauces application applicative applicators applicatory appliqueing appointment apportioned appositions appositives appreciable appreciably appreciated appreciates appreciator apprehended apprenticed apprentices appressoria approaching approbating approbation approbatory appropriate approvingly approximate appurtenant apriorities aptitudinal aquaculture aquamarines aquaplaners aquaplaning aquarellist aquatically aquatinters aquatinting aquatintist aquiculture arabicizing arabilities arabinoside arbitragers arbitrageur arbitraging arbitrament arbitrarily arbitrating arbitration arbitrative arbitrators arborescent arborvitaes arboviruses archaeology archaically archangelic archbishops archdeacons archdiocese archduchess archduchies archdukedom archegonial archegonium archenemies archenteron archesporia archipelago architraves archpriests arctangents arduousness arenicolous areocentric argumentive aristocracy aristocrats arithmetics aromaticity aromatizing arpeggiated arpeggiates arraignment arrangement arrestingly arrestments arrhythmias arrogations arteriogram arteritides arteritises arthralgias arthritides arthrodeses arthrodesis arthropathy arthropodan arthroscope arthroscopy arthrospore articulable articulated articulates articulator artifactual artilleries artillerist artiodactyl artisanship artlessness asafoetidas ascendances ascendantly ascendences ascensional ascertained ascetically asceticisms ascomycetes ascriptions aseptically asininities askewnesses asparagines aspergillum aspergillus asphaltites asphyxiated asphyxiates aspidistras aspirations assassinate assemblages assemblyman assemblymen assentation assertively assessments asseverated asseverates assiduities assiduously assignation assignments assimilable assimilated assimilates assimilator assistances associating association associative assoilments assortative assortments assuagement assumptions assuredness asterisking astigmatics astigmatism astonishing astringency astringents astrocytoma astrologers astrologies astrometric astronautic astronomers astronomies asymmetries atelectases atelectasis atheistical atherogenic athleticism athwartship atmosphered atmospheres atmospheric atomization atonalities atrabilious atrociously attachments attainments attempering attemptable attendances attentional attentively attenuating attenuation attenuators attestation attitudinal attornments attractance attractancy attractants attractions attributing attribution attributive attritional attunements atypicality auctioneers audaciously audiologies audiologist audiometers audiometric audiophiles audiovisual auditioning auditoriums auscultated auscultates austereness austerities autarchical authoresses authorising authorities authorizers authorizing authorships autocephaly autochthons autoclaving autocracies autocrosses autodidacts autoerotism autografted autographed autographic autoloading autolysates autolyzates automatable automations automatisms automatists automatized automatizes automobiled automobiles autonomists autorotated autorotates autosomally autostradas autosuggest autotomized autotomizes autotrophic autoworkers auxiliaries auxotrophic avalanching aventurines averageness avgolemonos avicultures avocational avoirdupois avouchments avuncularly awarenesses awesomeness awestricken awfulnesses awkwardness axiological axiomatized axiomatizes axisymmetry axonometric azimuthally azoospermia azotobacter