Dextroamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant which produces increased wakefulness, energy and self-confidence in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. It works primarily by inducing the release of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine from their storage areas in nerve terminals. Other common names for dextroamphetamine include d-amphetamine, dexamphetamine, (S)-(+)-amphetamine, and brand names such as Dexedrine and Dextrostat. Dextroamphetamine, commonly abbreviated as d-amphetamine, is the dextrorotary stereoisomer of the amphetamine molecule, which can take two different forms. Its stimulant properties are similar to those of Ritalin and methamphetamine, though with a slower onset of action and a duration that lies somewhere between the two. It is perhaps the archetypal euphoric stimulant, and drugs with similar psychoactive properties are often referred to as "amphetamine analogues", or described as having "amphetamine-like" effects. Both dopamine and norepinephrine are significant in dextroamphetamine's mechanism of action. In broad terms, dopamine is responsible for boosting mental focus and mood, while norepinephrine causes the typical fight-or-flight effects of appetite-suppression, reduced sense of fatigue, dry mouth and increased blood pressure. Dextroamphetamine is most often prescribed as dextroamphetamine sulfate, available as 5 mg and 10 mg tablets, as well as 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg time-release capsules. Other forms of the drug include the popular ADHD medication Adderall and its generic derivatives which contain equal proportions, by weight, of dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate and the sulfate and Aspartate Monohydrate salts of racemic d,l-amphetamine). The aspartate, saccharate and sulfate forms differ pharmacokinetically in the rate at which they are metabolized by the body. Dextroamphetamine is commonly used for treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or well-established narcolepsy, generally where non-pharmacological measures have proved insufficient. In some localities it has replaced methylphenidate as the first-choice medication for ADHD, a role in which it is considered highly effective. It is occasionally prescribed for weight-loss in cases of extreme obesity. Dextroamphetamine is contraindicated for patients with a history of substance abuse. Though such use remains out of the mainstream, dextroamphetamine has been successfully applied in the treatment of certain categories of depression as well as other psychiatric syndromes. Such alternate uses include reduction of fatigue in cancer patients, antidepressant treatment for HIV patients with depression and debilitating fatigue, early stage physiotherapy for severe stroke victims, and replacement therapy for those with methamphetamine addiction.