Fly Fishing is the art of using a long rod (usually 9'0" or
longer) to cast usually almost weightless lures (aka flies) to
precise locations. You use a heavy line, almost as thick as weed
eater cord that is matched to the rod. A monofilament or
flourocarbon leader of usually 7 to 9 feet in length is attached to
the fly line at one end, and the other, the fly is attached. This
leader keeps fish from seeing your real fly line.
Because of the casting motion, you are letting out more and more of the heavy line (called false casting), to determine the exact spot that you want your fly to land. In many situations, false casting is unnecessary though. Once you have gotten enough line out to get your distance, you let the fly drop, and often begin stripping (or pulling in line by short determined tugs) line until you hook a fish, or get back to the boat. Depending on the fly and situation, the fly may be simply allowed to drift with the current with no stripping of line.
Fly fishing is used for a variety of fish species, including carp, trout, salmon, bass and even saltwater species.